Arrival of the Church builders Mar Sapor and Mar Afroth(AD 825~850)-Kanthishangal

Mar Sabor isho and Mar Afroth (Mar Sabor and Mar Proth ) (ca. 849) were two Monks who build and ruled many churches in Malabar south India. In 800 AD Quilon was part of Venadu. It is believed that around 825 AD, Maruvan Sapir Eso a successful merchant from Persia crossed the seas to reach Quilon. Along with him came Mar Afroth and Mar Sapor, two bishops representing the Persian Catholicos. The then ruling monarch Iyyanadikal Thiruvadikal (849AD) welcomed the delegation and showered them with special privileges and honors and gifted Maruvan Sapir Eso with land to build a church. This is mentioned in “Tharisa Pally cheppedu”. These two pious Saintly brothers were known as Church builders and a number of Churches built by them were known as Katheeshangal or Quadisagal. The Tharisapalli plates are signed by the These Bishops in Hebrew, Pahlavi and Kufic languages indicating that the Treaty were with Jewish, Persian and Arabic Christians.
Malayalam Era is called 'Kolla Varsham' possibly as a result of the Tarish-a-palli sassnam. It also signified the independence of Malabar from the Cheraman Perumals.Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sidereal calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. The era started in the year 825 AD. The origin of Kollam Era been dated as being 825 AD being the great convention in Kollam at the behest of raja kulshekara. The Malayalam Era named after Quilon began in 825 AD. Malayalam Era is called 'Kolla Varsham' after Kollam, because of the importance of Kollam in the 9th century AD. It signified the independence of Malabar from the Cheraman Perumals. 
Christian &Jewish community of Arabia.

The highlight of Christian presence in South Arabia caused a severe clash between Jews and Christians. Various Christian sources reveal that the arrival and spread of Christianity in South Arabia, was bitterly opposed by the local Jews which would later have serious implications on both sides. The Jews of Arabian Peninsula were in contact with their co-religionists in Palestine and were seemingly effective proselytizers. The existence of Judaism in Southern Arabia also preceded the existence of Christianity by several centuries and dated back to the destruction of the Second temple in 70 CE.
Resistance to the Rise of Islam Expulsion to Mesopotamia
However, in time they resisted the preaching’s of Islam; and as a penalty, they were forcibly expelled from the town of their forefathers. They were ordered by Umar ibn al-Khattab to vacate the city and emigrate out of the Arabian Peninsula, or accept a money payment. Some migrated to Syria; but the greater part settled in the vicinity of Al-Kufa in predominantly Christian Southern Iraq, where the colony of Al-Najraniyyah long maintained the memory of their expatriation. The Jews of Arabia were also expelled with the Christians and went with them as their followers. However, the historicity of these events is not absolutely reliably established. It appears that the orders of Umar were not fully carried out .This is because there is some evidence of a continuing Christian presence in Najran for at least 200-300 years after the expulsion. Some sources also state that the Christian community of Najran still had considerable political weight in the late ninth century. According to a Yemeni Arab source, the first Zaydite Imam of Yemen, al-Hadi Ila l-Haqq Yahya ibn al-Hussain (897-911) concluded an accord with the Christians and the Jews of the oasis on 897, at the time of the foundation of the Zaydite principality.A second Yemeni source alludes to the Christians of Najran in muharram 390 (999-1000). The oasis was still one third Christian and one third Jewish, according to the testimony of the Persian traveller, Ibn al-Mujawir.The last evidence of the presence of Christianity in Northern Yemen of which Najran used to belong to, dates back to the 13th century. According to other accounts, the Christians of Sothern Arabia were deported to Mesopotamia by the Caliph Umar, on the grounds that no non-Muslims should inhabit the Arabian Peninsula.
Migration of Yemani Jew Joseph Rabban to Malabar (Isuppu Irabbân).
Maritime trade routes during the 9th century
Joseph Rabban was a Jewish merchant, possibly from Yemen, who came to the Malabar Coast (in present-day India) in the mid-8th century. According to the traditions of the Cochin Jews, Joseph was granted the rank of prince over the Jews of Cochin by the Chera ruler Bhaskara Ravivarman II.He was granted the rulership of a principality in Anjuvannam, near Cranganore (Anjuvannam or Anjuvannan refers to the community of Cochin Jews.[14]
He was granted the rulership of a pocket principality in Anjuvannam, near , Cranganore,[The name derives from the traditional Hindu system of castes where any person not belonging to one of the four principal castes used to be referred to as an anjuvannan. The word comes from the Malayalam words anju (five) and vannam or varnam (colour, race, or caste)], and rights to seventy-two "free houses". These rights were engraved on a set of bronze tablets known as the "Sâsanam" (Burnell, "Indian Antiquary," iii. 333-334), which are still in the possession of the Jewish community of India. The date of the charter can be fixed at about 750; it cannot, for paleographical reasons, have been much earlier than this, nor later than 774, since a grant made to the Malabar christians at that time was copied from it.
A link back to Rabban, "the king of Shingly" (another name for Cranganore), was a sign of both purity and prestige. Rabban's descendants maintained this distinct community until a chieftainship dispute broke out between two brothers, one of them named Joseph Azar, in the sixteenth century. Joseph Azar was a Jewish prince of the Anjuvannam in Cochin, South India. He was a descendent of Joseph Rabban. Azar lived in the 14th century CE. In 1340 Joseph Azar became embroiled in a conflict over succession with his brother. The ensuing strife led to intervention by neighboring potentates and the eradication of Jewish autonomy in South India.
Catholicose Patriarch Timothy I (780–823).
Timothy I, (Syriac: ܛܝܡܬܐܘܣ ܩܕܡܝܐ; ṭīmáṯeaos qadmáyá) patriarch of the Church of the East from 780 to 823, is widely considered to be one of the most impressive patriarchs in the long history of the East Syrian church. Respected both as an author, a church leader and a diplomat, Timothy was also an excellent administrator. During his reign he reformed the metropolitan administration of the Nestorian church, granting greater independence to the metropolitans of the mission field (the 'exterior' provinces) but excluding them from participation in patriarchal elections. These reforms laid the foundations for the later success of Nestorian missions in central Asia.
Timothy took a particularly keen interest in the missionary expansion of the Church of the East. He is known to have consecrated metropolitans for Damascus, for Armenia, for Dailam and Gilan in Azerbaijan, for Rai in Tabaristan, for Sarbaz in Segestan, for the Turks of Central Asia, and for China, and he also declared his intention of consecrating a metropolitan for Tibet. He also detached India from the metropolitan province of Fars and made it a separate metropolitan province. So naturally he would appoint a metropolitan for India.

The name which appears in the Copper plate grant is Marvan-Sapir- Iso. According to Mingana, it is the Syriac, Marvan Sabr- Isho, which means ” Our Lord Sabrisho”. Mar is the Syriac title of all Bishops and Sabrisho is a very common Syriac name meaning ” Jesus is my hope”. According to Mingana, therefore the name is not Sapor at all and what appears on the Copper plate is Sabrisho. In Persian MarvAn(مروان) is a common name simply means body gurd or Guardian. In Arabic the name Marwan means, "Old Arabic name."If we consider the Persian and Syriac origin of this name it means the bodyguard or guardian of sabar-isho(Bodyguard of Jesus-my hope?).The Indian name Sabarish originated from some" Unknown word which means, "Lord of Sabari.".
Marwan a Place?- Marivan (Persian: مريوان, Merîwan ) also Romanized as Persian pronunciation Marīvān) is a city in and capital of Marivan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. Before the foundation of the city in 1950s, Marîwan was the name of the region Marivan lies close to the border of Iran-Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan). Because of official border market of Bashmaq which is between Kurdish region of Iraq and Iran, Marivan serves a destination for shoppers in neighbor provinces.
Mar Sapor Isho-An East Syrian Bishop from Arabia?.
Mar Isaac of Nineveh and his successor Mar Sabr Isho.

Isaac of Nineveh (died c. 650~750) also remembered as Isaac the Syrian, Abba Isaac and Isaac Syrus was a Seventh century bishop and theologian best remembered for his written work.When Isaac of Nineveh, the author of this quotation, sought to explain the means by which to attain God’s love in A.D. 7C, Islam was in its nascence. But, Isaac of Nineveh was not a Muslim; rather he was a Christian and, indeed, had once been a bishop of the East Syrian Church. Nor was Isaac of Nineveh a lone voice, for Persia in A.D. 7C -- 8C saw a flowering of Syrian mysticism, whose influences were still being felt in A.D. 13 C.Isaac of Nineveh may, indeed, be termed the Persian Mystic. Whilst he was born in Qatar, his life appears to have been spent in the realms of Persia. Yet the only, definite chronological fact about Isaac of Nineveh is his consecration as the Bishop of Nineveh (modern Mosul) by Catholicus George I between A.D. 660-680. After only five month’s incumbency, Isaac of Nineveh relinquished his seat to retire to the Mountains of Khuzistan in ‘S.W. Iran in order to lead an anchoritic life. For forty years he devoted himself to writing at the monastery of Rabban Shabbour, where he was buried.
The following short biography is taken from the work Ketaba de Nakfuta:
"On the holy Maar Isaac, bishop of Ninive, who resigned his Episcopal office and wrote books on the behavior of solitaries. He was ordained a bishop of Ninive by Mar George the Katholikos, in the monastery of Bet 'Abe. After he had held the pastoral staff at Ninive for five months, as the successor of bishop Moses, he resigned his Episcopal office, for a reason which God knows, and went away to live in the mountains. And after the chair had been vacant for this time, the blessed Sabr Isho' was ordained as his successor, who also left his Episcopal office and became an anchorite in the days of Hanan Isho' the Katholikos, and departed this world in the monastery of Mar Shehin in Persia. When Isaac left the chair of Ninive, he ascended the mountain of Matut which surrounds Bet Huzaje and lived in solitude among the anchorites who were there. Afterwards he went to the monastery of Rabban Shabur and became exceedingly well acquainted with the divine writings; at last he lost his eyesight through his reading and asceticism. He penetrated deeply into the divine mysteries and wrote books on the divine behaviour of solitaries. He said three things which were not accepted by the community. Daniel, the bishop of Bet Garmaia, was scandalized at him on account of these things which he said. In high age he departed this temporary life; his corpse was interred in the monastery of Shabur. He was born in Bet Katraye; I think that envy was aroused against him by people of the country even as it was against Joseph Hazayya and John of Apamea and John de Daliyateh .
Isaac and his brother entered a monastery in Bet-Qatraje in Kurdistan while they were still young. He later became Bishop of Nineveh, a city on the banks of the Tigris, but resigned after just a few months to retreat to Mount Matout. His successor, Sabr Isho, was to follow his example, resigning his seat in favor of solicitude in the mountains.
Again this sabr isho has nothing to do with our “sapr isho” because the former possibly lived in the 8th century and the later came to Malabar in the early 9th century. But “”Sabr Isho' was ordained as his successor, who also left his Episcopal office and became an anchorite in the days of Hanan Isho”” there were two catholicose with the name hannan Isho Hnanishoʿ I (686–698) and Hnanishoʿ II (773–780).most probably the author was referring about the first Hnanishoʿ I (686–698).from the above analysis what we can conclude is that there were Christian bishops with the name sapr isho in Arabia & It’s a tradition among the bishops of Nineveh to resign from the Episcopal office and went away to live in the mountains.
Mar Abo, an obscure Persian prelate who is also supposedly the mentor of the legendary Kadamattathu Kathanar. There is a lot of confusion on whether this character is the same as the Sabor Isho part of the duo that landed later in Kerala. This possible Chaldean reached Kerala possibly between 5-10century. Was he an exorcist? An herbalist? Nestorian? Nobody knows but he is supposedly entombed at the Thevalakara Orthodox Church near Quilon.
Mar Afroth – An East Syrian Bishop from Persia?
Kufic Script

Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script. Its name is derived from the city of Kufa, Iraq[Kufa (Arabic,الكوفة al-Kūfah) is a city in Iraq, about 170 kilometres (110 mi) south of Baghdad, and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of Najaf.] although it was known in Mesopotamia at least 100 years before the foundation of Kufa. At the time of the emergence of Islam, this type of script was already in use in various parts of the Arabian Peninsula. It was in this script that the first copies of the Qur'an were written.Kufic is a form of script consisting of straight lines and angles, often with elongated verticals and horizontals. It originally did not have consonant pointing distinguishing, for example, b, t, and th. It is still employed in Islamic countries though it has undergone a number of alterations over the years and also displays regional differences. The difference between the Kufic script used in the Arabian Peninsula and that employed in North African states is very marked.Kufic was prevalent in manuscripts from the 8th-10th centuries.


  1. This comment has been removed by the author.

  2. Hi,
    I just copied the below statement fro Wikipedia,but it is correct

    "Mar Sabor and Mar Proth came along with Maruvan Sapir Iso were two Bishops who built and presided over a number of churches in the Kingdom of Travancore operating in accordance with Saint Thomas Christians.

    In 825 AD, the seaport of Quilon (now known as Kollam) was part of the Venad Kingdom. The then ruling monarch, Iyyanadikal Thiruvadikal, welcomed the monks on their arrival and showered them with special privileges and honours. Maruvan Sapir Iso built the Nilalkkal ashram near St. Thomas Church in Chayal, he died and buried in Chayal ashram.

    Mar Sabor and Mar Proth moved to various villages and established churches including Kadamattom St George Orthodox Syrian Church, Akapparambu, Kothanalloor, Kadisha Church in Kollam, Kadisha Church in Kayamkulam and then finally to present Thevalakkara Marth Mariam Orthodox Church, where they died and were buried."


    Tharissapalli Sasanam was a plate issued to Persian trader Mar Sapir Esho who was a member of Balija trade guild by Venad Kiing Ayyanadikal Thiruvadikal in 849 AD. Iravikortan plate was also a plate issued to Balija alias Valanjiar.

    Valanjiar had the authority to control inland and foreign trade, collect tax and control foreigners.


    Anchuvannam and Manigramam were Balija trade guilds. Balijas in Tamilnadu and Kerala were known as Valanjiar. Venad had been divided into eighteen Valanjiams under the administration of Valanjiars.

    Foreign traders were called as Nanadesikal and their elite were made members of Manigramam. Anchuvannam is a guild of Persians, Arabs and Turks. Chuvanakar meant Arab people in ancient Tamil.

    Persian trader Mar Sapir Esho was a "Nanadesi" foreign trader who was made member of Anchuvannam and Manigramam under Balijas and elevated to the status of Lord.

    Palli in Tamil means a place of worship or Lodging or a school.


    There were two Tharissapallis one at Kollam and another at another one at Valantharavai or Periapattinam in Ramnad district. The inscriptions recovered from Valantharavai confirms the presence of a Tharissapslli and a Jewish temple there.


    Kerala and Tamilnadu were ruled by Villavars and their northern cousins were Banas. Banas ruled Karnataka, Andhra and rest of India. Chera flag displayed the Bow and arrow insignia of Villavars. Chera kings were known as Villavarkon, Makothai Nadazhwar and Panantharakan.

    Bana Balijas who descended from Mahabali had formed trade guilds throughout India. The Balija warrior traders controlled foreign trade. Balijas were also known as Five Hundred Lords of Ayyavolu. The capital of Balijas was Aihole. Badami, Kishkinda were there other centers.


    Venad was ruled by Ay people who were ethnically related to Ahirs of North India. When Tharissapalli plate was issued Venad was a vassal state of Chera dynasty. Ay country was ruled by Ay aristocracy called Ayvels and Villavar aristocracy called Santar. Tax collectors were Villavars, Trade and administrators were Valanjiar.


    In 1120 AD a Buddhist Tulu prince called Banapperumal alias Banu Vikrama Kulasekharapperumal allied with Arabs attacked Kerala with a Nepali mercenary army of Nairs and occupied Malabar. Nambuthiris and Nairs were Aryan Naga clans from Ahichatra in Nepal who had been brought to Karnataka by Kadamba king Mayura Varma in 345 AD.

    Nambuthiris were Tuluva Brahmins who were the leaders of the Nair army. Banapperumal divided Malabar to his friends and relatives. Banapperumal founded matrilineal Tulu-Nepali kingdoms in which the kings were born to Tulu princes and Nambuthiris by Sambandam. Banapperumal embraced Islam and went for pilgrimage to Arabia.
    After the invasion of Malik Kafur in 1311 AD and destruction of Villavar Tamil kingdoms the matrilineal Tulu-Nepali kingdoms had occupied all Kerala with Arab and Turk support. Tulu--Nepali matrilineal Kolathiri, Samuthiri, Kochi and Venad kingdoms appeared after 1333 AD.
    Nambiadiri king of Kochi was a matrilineal Tulu-Nepali king. Matriarchy and Polyandry became common practices. The Tulu invaders talked in a Nepali mixed Malayalam and wrote it with Tulu script. Modern Malayalam is a mixture of Malayalam-Tamil with Nepali language and written with Tulu (Tigalari) script.


    Alexander's invasion of middle east, Persia and India favoured the spread of Christianity to east. It also spread the Greek and Aramaic languages to the east.


    Jesus himself had conversed in Aramaic and not Hebrew. Hebrew remained the literary language of Jews. Syriac language was Neo-Aramaic language which was closely related to the Aramaic, spoken language of ancient Judea.


    Seleucia was built in 305 BC on the west bank of Tigris in Mesopotamia north of Babylon by Seleucus I Nicator. Seleucia was the capital between 305 BC–240 BC. Later under Sassanians (Persian) Seleucia-Ctesiphon became the centre of Church of the East (Nestorianism).


    Seleucus I Nicator also built Antioch in Syria (now Antakya, Turkey) in 300 BC. Antioch was the capital between 240 BC–63 BC.


    Edessa (Şanlıurfa, Turkey) was also built by Seleucus I Nicator in the upper Mesopotamia.


    Babylon became a centre of Jews under Greeks. Babylonian Jews revolted against Parthian rule in 11 AD under Jewish brothers Anilai and Asinai who ruled Babylon between 18 AD to 33 AD. At the Seleucid Greek cities Seleucia, Antioch and Edessa both Greek and Syriac Christianity evolved. Both were culturally Greek. Ancient Greek cities Edessa (Selçuk), Chalcedon (Kurbağalıdere), Nicea (İznik) formed the cradle of Eastern Christianity.


    Syriac Christianity evolved under the umbrella of Eastern Roman Empire or The Byzantian empire infact which was actually Greek .Since Turkey, Syria and Iraq were under the Eastern Roman empire dominated by Greeks. Compared to Romans Byzantian Greeks were more tolerant to Christianity from the beginning.

    All the eastern Christian customs including Syriac Christianity evolved from Greek Christianity and not from Arabs or Jews. Eastern Orthodox, Syriac Orthodox, Nestorianism (Now Syro-Roman) all evolved in Nicaea, Edessa and Antioch. NICEAN CREED followed by most of the Christians was formulated here.


    In Kerala Christians practised Nestorianisn prior to the arrival of Poruguese in 1498 AD. Nestorianism or Church of the East was considered a heretic form of Christianity by the rest of the Christendom.


    Nestorianism was based on the teachings of Nestorius Patriarch of Constantinople. Nestorius belonged to ANTOCHIAN SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY. Around 428 ad Nestorius started teaching that Jesus had two Natures one human and other Logos. Jesus had two hypostases and actually two different persons. This theory was called RADICAL DYOPHYSITISM which differed from the ORTHODOX DYOPHYSITISM practiced by the rest of the Christians ie Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox of Byzantium.

    Nestorius argued that Jesus was only human and God is different from him. Nestorius refused to call Mary Mother of God (THEOTOKOS). Instead he called Mary Mother of Christ. This was considered blasphemous by most Christian's. Cyril the Patriarch of Alexandria led the opposition to Nestorius.


    In the ecumenical council convened at 431 AD by Byzantine Emperor THEODOSIUS, Nestorius was denounced as a heretic, deposed from his post as Bishop and exiled. The theology he created was called Nestorianism. The non-Ephesine followers of Nestorianism were forced to move out of Antioch in the Eastern Roman Empire to SELEUCIA CTESIPHON at the banks of Tigris river which was the capital of Sassanian Persian Empire around 486 AD. Seleucia Ctesiphon is now part of Iraq.



    Nestorianism resembled other Abrahamic religions such as Judaism but quite different from Christianity.


    Nestorians did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Jesus was only a man directed by Holy spirit according to Nestorius. Mary was not to be addressed as Mother of God by Nestorians as they did not consider Jesus as God. Mary was addressed as Mother of Jesus or Mother of Christ.


    Nestorians were iconoclastic and their churches displayed SINGLE WOODEN CROSS. Their churches did not have any idol of Jesus, Mary, Apostles or Saints. Nestorian Churches were simple structures lacking any kind of decoration. No towers or arches or Baroque or Gothic style existed. They were not colourful. Nestorians revered saints but neither the pictures of Saints or idols can be kept at home or worshipped.


    Nestorians practised Circumcision. Nestorius told his flock that Jesus himself circumcised hence all the Nestorians should do Circumcision as well.


    The Peshitta Bible used by Nestorians were slightly different from other Syriac bibles which denied the Divinity of Jesus and the position of Jesus as Mother of God. This was called Nestorian errors by other sects. Nestorian theology was Radical Dyophysite meaning Jesus has two Natures( Human and Logos) two persons and and two hypostases and completely split.


    In the early days of Christianity, Christian's were questioned by people.

    1. If Jesus was God how come he was crucified and died ? To whom did Jesus pray at Gethsemane park ?

    2. If possible you may relieve me of this role. Whom did crucified Jesus call ? Eli Eli Lama Sabaktani -- My God My God why have you forsaken me. Was he praying to God ?.

    To answer these questions early Bishops adopted the Dyophysite theory that Jesus was half man half God. This is derived from earlier Trinity theory otherwise called Trinitrianism. Father and Son used as God and Human forms.

    Radical Dyophysite II NESTORIANISM
    Orthodox Dyophysite Y ROMAN CATHOLIC
    Monophysite l JACOBITE

    Nestorian Radical diaphysite theology with two natures two Persons and two hypostases is radically different from other sects. As Nestorius claimed Jesus was only human guided by Holy spirit. Roman Catholicism , Protestants Eastern Orthodox and rest of the Christendom used Orthodox Dyophysite theology ie Jesus has one Person and has one hypostases but two Natures, Human and God.


    Nestorians thus differed from other sects by their Nestorian Errors

    1. Jesus was not God but a human

    2. Mary was not Mother of God but Mother of Jesus.


    Portuguese who were overwhelmed by the presence of Christian population in India did not like the Nestorian theology.

    Portuguese with the help of Mar Jacob Abuna(1503) tried to correct it immediately after their arrival. They succeeded in banning Radical Dyophysitism and Nestorianism.

    Portugues converted the whole Syrian population to Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholics believe Jesus as God and Mary as the Mother of God. Though Eastern rites is derived from Nestorian rites Nestorian errors have been corrected,

    Portuguese saved the Christian population of Kerala from complete annihilation at the hands of Samuthiri and Arabs.
    If Portuguese had not come Arabs would have dominated whole of Kerala. They built magnificent Basilicas and Cathedrals. The Christian population leaped from 30000 at 1504 to 200000 in 1660 AD.

    In modern times Portuguese are not hailed as Great reformers but as Villains. But their Blood and efforts have radically transformed Christianity in Kerala.




    At 341 AD Shapur II who was a Zoroastrian by faith ordered the massacre of all Christians in the Persian Sassanid Empire. During his time about 1150 Assyrian Christians were martyred. It has been speculated that early Christian's migrated to Kerala in this period. But the Persian Bishop in that period Yohanan bar Maryam of Arabela, was totally unaware of migration of Thomas of Cana or any other migration.


    Yazdegerd I was the first Sassanian King to support Christianity. Yazdegerd l (399–421) convoked a council under Mar Isaac Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, in AD 410 in Seleucia-Ctesiphon the capital of the Persian Sassanid Empire. Convoked by King Yazdegerd I  organized Christians of his empire into a single church, The Church of the East,, an Eastern rites church.

    Seleucia-Ctesiphon, capital of the Sassanian empire, Nisibis, Basra, Erbil, Kirkuk in Iraq and Beth Lapat in western Iran became important centres of the Church of East. Church of East adopted Nestorianism as its Theology in 486 AD.


    But soon another form of heresy arrived in 451 AD. This new sect was promoted by Jacob Baradaeus who became the Bishop of Edessa in 543 AD. Jacob Baradaeus who wore tattered, stitched clothes. Jacob's theology was Miaphysite a form of Monophysite theology in which human and Godly forms of Jesus were fused together.

    Jesus was one person one Hypostases one Nature with two components God and Human. Present Jacobites and Orthodox follow the Monophysite or Miaphysite theology along with other Oriental Orthodox churches. Jacobite Theology was St.James, rites Western rites.


    Theology : Radical Dyophysitism
    Language : Syriac
    Theology : St Mari St Adai(St Thomas line of disciples)
    Rites: Eastern rites

    Syriac orthodox (Jacobite)
    Theology : Miaphysitism
    Language : Syriac
    Theology : St James
    Rites : Western rites

    Except Language nothing is common between Nestorianism and Orthodox churches.
    (Actually Marthoma I had abandoned St.Thomas-Liturgy and had adopted St.James-Liturgy in 1675 AD. So modern Orthodox and Jacobites follow St.James not St.Thomas)



    In the Council of Ephesus Bishop Nestorius was denounced as heretic and exiled His followers mostly Syrians and Persians and Syrians migrated to Seleucia Ctesiphon the capital of Sassanian Persia which was situated 28 km south of Babylon. Nestorianism became a separate sect.


    Those who opposed the Chalcedonian Definition that repudiated the monophysite notion that Jesus had a single Nature were called non-Chalcedonians. The Oriental Orthodox who favoured the Miaphysite theology separated from Byzantine Greeks state religeon.

    1)Byzantine Greeks formed EASTERN ORTHODOX (Greeks, Georgeans, Russians)

    2) ORIENTAL ORTHODOX (Syrians, Egyptians, Ethiopians, Erithreans) Arabs and Africans formed the Oriental Orthodox sect.
    a) Egyptians formed Coptic church
    b) Syrians formed Syriac Orthodox(Jacobite)
    c)Ethiopeans formed Ethiopian Orthodox

    Thus the Byzantine Christianity once had followers from Persians, Syrians, Greeks, Egyptians and Ethiopeans were divided on ethnicity by 500 AD.



    Toldot Yeshu was a Apocryphal book written in the 5th century AD. This book gives a brief description of the life of Nestorius.

    The following is chapter 7 of the TOLDOT YESHU:

    1. Now after a long time the kingdom of Persia arose.
    2. And a certain one went forth from them and made a mock of them, even as the heretics had made a mock of the wise men.
    3. And he said to them, Paul erred in his writing when he said to you, Be not circumcised: for Yeshua was circumcised.
    4. Moreover Yeshua said, I am not come to diminish a single word of the law of Moses, not even one sign; but to fulfill all his words.
    5. And this is your reproach which Paul laid upon you when he said, Be not circumcised.
    6. And Nestorius said unto them, Circumcise yourselves, for Yeshu was circumcised.
    7. Furthermore Nestorius said, Ye are idolaters that say, Yeshua is God, seeing that he was born of a woman. Only the Holy Spirit ministered through him as with the prophets.
    8. And Nestorius began to debate with the Nazarenes: he persuaded their wives.
    9. He said unto them, I will enact that no Nazarene shall have two wives.
    10. And as Nestorius became detestable in their sight there arose a strife between them, in so much that a Nazarene would not pray to the abomination of Nestorius, neither a Nestorian to the abomination of the Nazarenes.
    11. Thereafter Nestorius went to Babylonia, to a certain place the name of which is Chazaza, and all fled before him.
    12. And the women concealed themselves, for Nestorius was a violent man.
    13. The women said to him, What wilt thou of us?
    14. He said unto them, I will only that ye receive of me the bread and wine offering.
    15. Now it was a custom of the women of Chazaza to carry in their hands large keys.
    16. He gave one of them the offering; and she cast it on the ground.
    17. Then the women threw the keys, which were in their hands, and smote him so that he died.
    18. And the strife continued between them for a long time.

    5.6 According to this book Nestorius promoted circumcision among his followers.
    7. Nestorius despised idolatry. He argued that Jesus born of a woman was only human but a prophet guided by holyspirit.
    9. Nestorius enforced Monogamy among Nazarenes


    The early Nestorians practised Circumcision similar to Coptic and Ethiopean Christions. Until Portuguese arrival only Nestorianism existed in India. So among these Indian Nestorians also circumcision might have been an accepted practice from 500 AD to 1200 AD.

    In the thirteenth century however Nestorians not only abandoned the practice of Circumcision, but opposed this practice outside muslim countries.


    Isa Kelemechi Nestorian official at the Yuan court of Kublai Khans Mongol empire was instrumental in promoting Anti-Muslim prohibitions such as Circumcision and Halal slaughtering.




    Nestorianism was considered a heretic form of Christianity. Nestorians were not allowed to stay in the rest of Christendom. Nestorians were not welcome in Europe Rome and Byzantium. Nestorians could migrate only to eastern countries. Strangely this heretic form of religeon which denied the divinity of Jesus and denied the Godmother status spread to India and China.


    The Christian's other than Nestorians criticised the portions of Nestorian Theology which portrayed Jesus only as a human and denying Mary Mother of God status. These portions in the Nestorian Theology were called Nestorian errors. Portuguese priests in India were offended by the Nestorian stance that Jesus was not God.

    Portuguese under Archbishop Menezes in India strived hard to remove the books from Usage which contained the Nestorian Heresy ie Nestorian errors. If the errors were minimal Roman Catholic priests under Menezes corrected the bibles by hiding those lines with ink before allowing the Indian Church to use them in their Churches.


    Nestorian Patriarch was also called Catholicos was the head of the church. Patriarch always took the name Mar Shimon. Though Nestorians were converted by St.Thomas their Patriarchs preferred to call themselves as Simon (Peter), an apostle who occupied a higher ecclesiastical position than St.Thomas. Under the Patriarch Metropolians, Bishops, Priests (presbyter) and Deacons come.



    Persian Nestorians were multiethnic people.They were a mixture of

    The first eastern Christian's were Byzantine Greeks and most of the early Bishops were Greeks as well.The names and positions such as Metropolitan and Episcopa are Greek terms.The Greeks residing in Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Persia by mixing with the local population might have formed the Nestorian church as well. The names of the ancient Bishops were always in Greek and not in Persian, Syriac or Arabic.

    Assyrians an araemic people like Jews but often enemies and overlords of Jews. Assyrian kings used to bring Jews as slaves.Their language is derived from the Neo Araemic language.Assyrians were the Asura equivalents of Middle east. They were called Assuryanis and their ancient capital was Assur. Assuras occupied the Middle areas of Euphrates Tigris river basin while the Mittanian Aryans occupied northernmost areas of Euphrates Tigris river Basin, Northern Mesopotamia ( Al Jazeera). Southern Mesopotamia was occupied by ancient Sumerians and in the South eastern areas by Elamites believed to be relatives Dravidians.

    Other Aramaic people were Semitic residents of present day Iraq. Some of them could have been related to Jews. Between 10 AD to 36 AD Babylon was ruled by two Jewish brothers called Anilai and Asinai who had revolted against Artabanus II of Parthia. But after 36 AD Jews were harassed by local Babylonians, Araemians and Greeks forcing them to emigrate to Seleucia Ctesiphon and Nisibis. But there is no records of Jewish conversion to Christianity

    4) PERSIAN
    Persians were the next major race to be converted to Nestorianism. Church of the East was officially formed in 410 AD, under Sassanian king Yazdegerd I, even before Nestorianism was made the official religeon in 486 AD. Persian Nestorians used Pahlavi Script to write. In Tharisapalli plates three signatories signed with Pahlavi letters ( Syriac is conspicuous by its absence)

    Arabs Nestorians occupied south of Bhagdad. Karbala was once a flourishing Christian city.

    Kurdish people around Mosul close to ancient Nineveh were Nestorians. Indian Jewellery of Nestorian Syrian Christian's might have inspiration from the Kurdish Jewellery.

    The Patriarch of Mosul used to sent Bishops to head the Indian Church.After 1552 schism, in 1553 Mar Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa the Nestorian Bishop was instrumental in the conversion of Nestorians to Roman Catholicism and eventually Chaldean Catholic Church was formed under Rome. But this conversion was only nominal as they still had strong conviction to Nestorianism.

    Both Mar Joseph Sulaqa (1563), and Mar Abraham (1568) Bishops under the Chaldean Patriarchate of Babylon came from Mosul. Nestorianism survived among Kurdish people to present.

    Many Kurdish Nestorians withdrew to hilly areas to escape their arab tormentors. During 1933 the Kurdish Contingent of Nestorians tried to cross borders and French on the other side, but French turned them back. The members Kurdish contingent were massacred by the Iraqi forces when they went back.

    Christian church was founded by Jews in the Mesopotamia.But in the Church of the East they played minimum role.

    There are ome references to Armenian Nestorians. Southists believe Kanai Thomman was an Armenian trader.



    Until Portuguese arrival Nestorianism was the only form of Christianity which existed in India.


    Cosmos Indicopleustus was a Greek Nestorian priest and a trader from Alexandria. Cosmos visited India and Srilanka around 516 AD. Cosmos said that there was a Persian Nestorian Bishop at Srilanka and a priest at Male where pepper grows, most likely Kerala. He also said about Nestorian Christians at Mangarouth (Mangalore) and Kalliyana (Kalyan near Bombay or Kalyanpur an ancient Pandyan capital near Mangalore).At Srilanka Nestorians completely disappeared. When Portuguese arrived they did not find any native Christians in Srilanka. Christian Topography is the work of Cosmos Indicopleustes written around


    The Srilankan Christians could have migrated to Kerala or Tamilnadu in the middle ages. In 632 AD Persia had been invaded by the Arabs and most of Persia came under Rashidun Caliphate. So the Srilankan Nestorians could not have gone back to Persia or Syria.


    First Tamil evidence for presence of Nestorians in Kerala is the Tharissappalli sasanam issued by Ay king of Kollam Aiyanadikal thiruvadikal to Persian trader Mar Sapir Eso in 849 AD. A palli either a Choultry for foreign traders or a Christian church was built by Mar Sapir Eso under the auspices of Kollam king. Palli in Tamil has many meanings including resting place a lodge, a Choultry, then a place of worship for jains, a school, Kitchen etc.

    It is interesting to note that out of the 26 foreign signatories 13 were Muslims, 6 were Zorastrians, 4 were Jews and another 3 were Christians. The European scholars feigned that the could not decipher the names of the signatories written in Pahlavi, Kufic and Hebrew. If Tharisappally had been a church it could be the most secular church.


    The Kollam tradeguilds Anchuvannam and Manigramam were part of the larger trade guilds of Balijas. Balija (Valanjiar) were Banas of Kadamba kingdom who became traders in the middle ages and had built a vast trade network mainly in the southern India and also sea routes to China and Middle East.


    Balija trade guilds included Nanadeshikal ie foreign traders. The foreign traders were allowed to build fortified lodges in which they lived. The foreigners were allowed to collect tax locally. Tharissapally plates and Ravi Korthan plates were Balija trade guild plates assuring them rights. Persian Nestoriaans were part of Nanadeshikal under the Balijas.

    Tharissappalli plates mentioned the names of some Nestorian Christan traders. Out of the 26 foreign signatories, only three were Christans, and of the rest 13 were Muslims, 6 were Zorastrians and 4 were Jews only 3 were Christians. It is quite unlikely 26 foreigners of diverse religions united to build a Christian Church in 849 AD. British researchers and missionaries feigned their inability to interpret the names of the signatories.



    The Syrian traders could actually be multiethnic but connected Nestorianism. Persian, Aramaic, Syrian, Kurdish, Arabs, Armenians etc. The Christian traders sailed from Basra to Kochi and Kollam, Kayalpattinam and Madras following trade winds.


    The Trade winds blow in the reverse direction only after six months which enabled them to go back to Mesopotamia. For six months the middle eastern sailors were forced to stay in India. In that time the Syrians often married from local Dravidian women. But after six months they will leave their wives and Children in India and go back to Basra. The Next year the same trader may come back and meet his family or may never come back.

    These Syrian traders who married local Hindu Dravidian women were called Nasrani Mappillas Christian Son-in-Laws. The wives and children of the Syrian sailor will join the local Christian Colony and the Children will be raised Christians adopting middle eastern Christian names. But most of the Syrian children may not visit Iraq, Syria or Persia. They will also be known by the name Syrian Nasrani Mappilla.


    Kodungaloor, Chendamangalam, Kochi, Kollam, Kayalpattinam and Madras could be the places which had Syrian colonies. Marco Polo found Persian graves at Kayalpattanam near Tuticorin.


    When Karbala in Iraq was a flourishing Christian city possibly of Nestorians who traded with India a city called Al-Hindiya existed near it. Al-Hindiya means of Indians. Dutt clan of Mohyal Brahmins resided at Dair-al-Hindiya. Rahab Sidh Dutt leader of Mohyal or Hussaini Brahmins fought on the side of Imam Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala in 680 AD. Until seventh century Indians used to stay near the Christian city of Karbala. After the destruction of Karbala in the 7th century Nestorians could have migrated to India. Mohyal Brahmins migrated to Punjab

    Thus when Syrians colonised India there was an Indian colony at Hindiyah, Iraq.


    The Miaphysite theology now known as Jacobite and Orthodox churches had its origin in Alexandria Egypt.


    Patriarch of Alexandria from 412 to 444 AD had attended theCouncil of Ephesus in 431, which led to the deposition of Nestorius as Patriarch of Constantinople. Cyril of Alexandria declared Jesus was God hence Mary was Theotokos, meaning God bearer in contrast to the Nestorian philosophy that Jesus was human and Mary was just mother of Jesus.


    1. Jesus was God
    2. Mary was mother of God



    1. Jesus was human
    2. Mary was the mother of Jesus.


    According to Miaphysite theology the Human and Godly natures (physies) were rolled in to a single Person (Hypostasis) of God.

    Cyril of Alexandria even compressed the Holy Trinity into one single Hypostasis of God. Thus Holy Trinity consisting of three hypostases Father, Son and Holy spirit but fused into a single Person of God.


    GHASSANIDS (220 AD to 638 AD)

    Ghassinids were an Yemanite arab tribe who migrated to Levant, mixed with the Hellenised Christian community and adopted Christianity. Ghassinids were vassal state of Greek Byzantine kingdom. Syria, Jordan Eastern Iraq were ruled by this Yemenite Christians. This area was also the cradle of Nestorians and Orthodox people. But in that period the Syriac Christians were not influenced by Arab language or culture.

    Ghassinids fought against Persian Sassanian Empire. Some became muslims after their fall in 638 AD. Others joined Melkites (Meaning Kings religeon) the official religeon of Byzantine Greeks later known as Greek Orthodox religeon. Rest of the Gassinides joined Syriac Christianity. Some of them could have sailed to Kerala. Antiochian Greek Christians may be descendents of Yemenite Ghassinids.

    TANUKHIDS(196 AD to 1100 AD)

    They were among the early Arab Christian's. The Tanukhids appeared in the southern Syria and northern Arabia. Tanukhed were also known as Saracens. Tanukhids established a kingdom in Aleppo near Antioch. Tanukhids were Christians devoted to Apostle Thomas and monasticism, who established many monasteries.

    Queen Mavia (375 AD to 425 AD) ruled southern Syria who revolted against Romans when Arab request to send an Eastern Orfhodox priest was denied. Tanukhids were St.Thomas Christians. In the ancient times Some of these Arab Syriac St.Thomas Christians could have reached Kerala searching for pepper. Many Tanukhids were converted to Islam in the laterdays and were known as Saracens.



    Two Byzantine emperors, Zeno (474-491) and more fervently Anastasius Dicorus (491-518), were followers of the Miaphysite tradition. But the next emperor Justin I (518-527) was a Chalcedonian supporter.

    THEODORA (500 to 548 AD)

    Theodora was an Eastern Roman empress by marriage to emperor Justinian. She became empress upon Justinian's accession in 527AD. Byzantine emperor Justinian I was Chalcedonian but the Empress Theodora was a Miaphysite. She gave refuge to Non Chalcedonion Bishops such as Severus and Anthimus. Theodora invited Jacob Bardeus and provided Political support for him. Both Theodora and Jacob Bardeus play an important role in the foundation of Jacobite Church.


    Jacob Bardeus was the Bishop of Edessa the Bishop of Edessa from 543 to 578. Jacob Baradaeus was the founder of Syriac Orthodox church. It is also known by his name as Jacobite church.


    Unlike the modern Jacobite and Orthodox priests who wear expensive dresses Jacob Baradaeus wore ragged cloths torn and stitched by himself. Bardaeus means stitched or repaired.
    Kerala's Jacobite and Orthodox priests wear the most expensive costume when compared with the other Christian priests of India.

    SAL-HARITH IBN JABALAH (528 to 569 AD)

    Al-Harith ibn Jabalah was a Ghassanid Yemeni Arab Christian ruler and was a Miaphysite Orthodox believer.


    Al-Mundhir III was the son of Gassinid ruler Al-Harith ibn Jabalah. He was a staunch Miaphysite - Orthodox follower. This led to conflict with his Byzantine Overlords 584, the Byzantines broke up the federation and exiled them to Sicily.


    Early Miaphysites were Greek and Arabs while Nestorians were Greek and Persians.


    1. Greek
    2 Arabs


    1. Greek
    2. Persian

    Yemenite Christians, the Ghassinids and Queen Theodora played an important role in the establishment of Jacobite church firmly.



    Constantine the Great Justinian the Great and his wife Theodora are three most famous Royals revered as saints in the Eastern Orthodox Church the official church of Byzantine Empire. Theodora because of her belief in Miaphysitism she is revered as Saint in Oriental Orthodox churches including Jacobite Church.



    Indian Nestorian Syrian Christians were led by Kurdish Bishops of Mosul in Iraq after the fall of Bhagdad around 1000 AD. A Bishop called Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa of Mosul became a Catholic in 1552 AD and established Chaldean Catholic Church. Portuguese allowed the Chaldean Catholic Bishops from Mosul such as Mar Joseph Sulaqa and Mar Abraham to become Bishops of Malabar. But the Chaldean Catholic bishops were not supporters of Roman catholic Church and they were accused of propagating Nestorian errors ie they asserted that Jesus was not a God but only a human.


    Portuguese had converted Keralas Tamils of Villarvettom kingdom who had converted to Nestorianism in 1339 AD to Roman Catholicism. The Chaldean Catholic Bishops such as Mar Joseph and Mar Abraham who came from Mosul in iraq, induced rebellion of Keralas Roman Catholics against portuguese. Later the former Nestorian priests though converted to Roman Catholicism rebelled against Portuguese and Jesuit dominance in 1660s.

    The confused Roman Catholics of Kerala then 200000 in number, also revolted against Portuguese though they were still loyal to Pope and were staunch Roman Catholics .


    Portuguese left Kerala after the creation of Syro-Malabar sect in 1663 AD which was controlled by the Carmelite priests. The Diocese of Varapuzha under Pope was established in 1675 AD by Carmelite priests. Still many Syrian Christians pretended that they were a branch of Chaldean Catholic church of Mosul and promoted Syriac language. But bulk of the Kerala Catholics were nothing but Portuguese mixed Tamils of Villarvattom kingdom and many of them never had been Nestorian Syrians. But Kerala's catholics were made to believe that they were Nambuthiris or Jews or Syrians by their priests. Portuguese Jesuit Bishops continued to control Kodungaloor, Ambazhakkad and Angamaly areas until 1795 AD.


    Until Portuguese arrival in 1498 AD the Christians of Kerala were adherents of Nestorianism. But Nestorianism was a heretic form of Christianity which did not accept Jesus as God. Nestorians maintained that Jesus was not God but was human. Nestorians refused to address St.Mary as "Mother of God". Nestorians preferred to call Mary as ^Mother of Jesus". Nestorians asserted God and Jesus are two completely different individuals set wide apart. Nestorians prayed to Yahova whom they called Eli and they did not pray to Jesus. Nestorians followed the custom of circumcision as instructed by the Nestorian Syrian church. But the Nestorians abandoned the practice after 1300 AD and the Chinese Nestorians were opposed to Circumcision according to John of Montecorvino in 1305 AD. Nestorianism was closer to Judaism than Christianity.Portuguese were infuriated to hear Nestorian Syrian St.Thomas Christians of Kerala declare that Jesus was not God. But soon the Portuguese succeeded in converting all Nestorians to Roman Catholicism.



    Until 1333 AD Venad was ruled by Veera Udayamarthanda Varma Veera Pandiyan. He was the last Cherai king who had Thiruppappu title. At 1333 Tamil rule came to an end when Kunnumel Aditya Varma belonging to the Tulu dynasty of Kolathiri became the king. At Cochin Tamil Villarvettom kings ruled from their capital at Chendamangalam. The Nambiadri brahmin kings of Cochin were ruling from Perumbadappu near Vannery at the Banks of Ponnani lake. The overlordship of Kerala was given to Nambuthiri, Nairs and Tulu Samantha Kshatriyas by Malik Kafur. In the earlier period Tuluva Brahmins called Nambuthiris were not dominant in Kerala. Arabs brought Nambuthiris inside Kerala in 1120 AD and after 1314 AD Turks gave Nambuthiris sovereignty of Kerala.


    The Nambuthiris claimed Parashurama created Kerala by throwing his axe from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. They claimed Parashurama gave Kerala to them. Until 1335 AD Kerals was ruled by Dravidian Tamils. None of the earlier Tamil literature or inscriptions ever mentioned Parashurama or Nambuthiris. Kerala was actually given to Nambuthiris by Malik Kafur in 1314 AD and not by Parashurama. Nambuthiris were not indigenous tamils but Tuluva Brahmins with roots at Ahichatram in Nepal. Nambuthiris were among the most immoral Brahmins of India. Only the elder Nambuthiri son married from his own Nambuthiri caste. Other Nambuthiri sons never married but visited the houses of unknown Nair families and Tulu Samantha Kshatriya families and had sexual relationship with the women there. Each day they visited different houses. They never recognised children born through these illegal relationships as their heirs.


    In Kerala Nestorian Syrian Christians from the Persian Church existed from fifth century onwards. But they were foreigners who married Tamil ladies from coastal areas hence called Syrian Malabar Nasrani Mappilas. Mapilla were foreign son in laws who married local woman. None of the Tamil records from Chera dynasty which ruled until 1102 AD or Cherai dynasty which ruled until 1333 AD mentioned Christianity, Christians or Jesus. Other than the coastal women who married foreign Nasrani Mappillas no Tamil converted to Christianity until 1292 when Eurooean missionaries started coming.


    Friar John of Montecorvino who visited Kerala in 1292 AD mentioned that few Nestorian Christians and Jews were present at Kerala but they are of little worth AD the local Hindu population persecuted them in his "Letters from Cathay and thither" . The european missionaries such as John of Montecorvino, Jordanus Catalani and John of Marignolli never mentioned any Christian's who descended from Nambuthiris neither the existence of large number of St.Thomas Christians in Kerala. There is no record that the European missionaries ever visited any Nestorian Syrian Church in Kerala. The Nestorian Syrians might have been very few in numbee, perhaps in few hundred only or perhaps few thousand only, in 1292 AD. Only Syrian Church the European missionaries visited was at Madras. In the period between 1322 AD to 1329 AD Friar Jordanus Catalani converted three thousand Natives of Kollam to Christianity. Kollam Roman Catholic Diocese was established in 1329 AD and Jordanus Catalani was made as Bishop of India by Pope.




    John of Marignolli who came in 1347 AD says that St Thomas Christians at Kollam were cultivating Pepper, they were doing iron business and owned steelyards and they were having the title Mudaliar. The records of John of Marignolli suggests that the St.Thomas Christians might have converted to Latin Catholicism in 1347 AD . St.Thomas christians had donated Hundred Fanams each month and Thousand Fanam when he left Kerala, to Friar Marignolli who was the representative of Pope.

    This Latin Catholic population converted by European missionaries merged with the earlier Nestorian population as no Latin Bishop was sent to India between 1347 AD to 1498 AD when Portuguese arrived. When Portuguese arrived in 1498 AD there was no Latin Catholic at Kollam. All the Latin Catholics had joined the Nestorians. Thus first increase in the Nestorian population in the 14th century was the handiwork of European missionaries.


    The Tamil Villarvettom kingdom faced opposition from the Nambuthiris and Nairs after the establishment of Cochin kingdom in 1335 AD.

    Villarvettom kings might have descended from Uthiyan branch of Cheran dynasty which ruled from Udayanapuran in Kuttanad. The latter-day capitals of Villarvettom kingdom were Chendamangalam and Udayamperoor. The Villarvettom kingdom ruled the areas between Chendamangalam to Vaikkom. But after Kochi kingdom was established in 1335 AD Thripunitura near Udayamperoor and Vellarapalli were made secondary capitals of Cochin Kingdom.

    Facing opposition from Tulu-Nepalese invaders the Villarvettom king converted to Christianity around 1339 AD. The conversion of Villavar and Panickars of Villarvettom kingdom might have increased the Nestorian Christian population to 30000. This provoked a violent attack from Arabs and their ally the Samuthiri king of Kozhikode in 1340 AD. Capital of Villarvettom kingdom Chendamangalam was destroyed and then the capital was shifted to Udayamperoor.

    The Villarvettom king wrote a letter to Pope seeking help around 1350 AD. Pope redirected that letter to Portuguese king. A rumour that a powerful Christian king called Prestor John was ruling over India was circulated among the Europe's elite. But no help came from Europe until 1450 AD when the Villarvettom kingdom ended. The Villarvattom kingdom was subjugated by Cochin kingdom and it remained as a vassal country of Cochin until the end of its rule end in 1450 AD. The Kozhikode Granthavari mentioned Villarvettom kingdom as a vassal Christian outsider kingdom related by blood to Cochin kings. This indicates that after 1350 AD Villarvettom princesses were forced to have Sambandam with Nambiadri kings of Cochin which might have created a Syrian Christians' Nambudiri origin myth.

    At 1450 AD Villarvettom kingdom was given to some Panickers who defected to Nair side who ruled from Chendamangalam. These Panickar chieftains were known as Paliyathu Achan who became chief ministers of Cochin kingdom in the laterdays. Last Villarvettom princess Kirubavathi had Sambandam with Ramavarma from Cochin family. But when Ramavarma was converted to Christianity he was killed and the last princess Kirubavathy was converted to Hinduism after a brief ceremony. kirubavathy was made concubine of Cochin king. Between 1350 AD to 1498 AD when Nambuthiris became dominant they might have misused the Christian women and had Sambandam with them.



    Hundreds of Churches were built by the Portuguese for the Roman Catholic Christians of Kerala.The local rulers who wanted to please the Portuguese had donated plantations and other agricultural land to these churches.


    Modern Syrian Christians pretend that their churches were built during the first to third century AD by Nambuthiri christians. At present an inscribed plaque placed by Syrian Christians before each church built by Portuguese which declares that the church was originally built at 128 AD or 156 AD. Recently the Tomb stone of Francisco Ros who was Latin Arch Bishop of Angamaly-Cranganore between 1601 AD to 1624 AD which had been inscribed in Portuguese and Tamil Vattezhuthu was removed and it was replaced and a inscription in modern Malayalam was kept in its place. This is an attempt to hide the Tamil and Portuguese past of Syrian Christians. Syrian Christians started using Modern Malayalam script only after 1830 AD.


    According Lebanese Historian J.S. Assemani that Knanya Christians came to India in the 9th century AD with Thomas of Cana alias Bishop Thomas of Hadud who was a Nestorian priest in his book "Bibliotecha Orientalis". Knanya Nestorians converted by Portuguese to Roman Catholicism were recognised as a separate Roman Catholic sect by Pope in the nineteenth century are known as "Knanya Catholics" or "Thekkumbagar". Knanya now claim that they came in 325 AD and their Churches were built in 325 AD.
    Nestorianism appeared only after 431 AD. Nestorians never worshipped jesus Mary or other Roman Catholic saints. Syrian Christians who were converted to Roman Catholicism by conversion and intermixture by Portuguese now pretend that they were actually tortured by Portuguese.


    During Nestorian era only Iraqis become Metropolitans-Bishops. But Archdeacons from a family called Pakalomattom who assisted the Iraqi Arch bishops called "Metropolitans" controlled the local Nestorian Christians. The Syrian Nestorian priests had been converted to Roman Catholicism but only nominally Catholics. The rest of the Syrian christians were staunch Roman catholics because of the influence of Mestizos.


    The Syrian Nestorian priests from Pakalomattom family finally wrested control from Portuguese and captured all the churches and landed property attached to them in 1663 AD. The Syrian Catholics were split into two factions both were staunch catholics and were loyal to Pope. Both the factions of Syrian Christians were headed by two priests from the Pakalomattam family. One faction was called Syro-Malabar who were loyal to Pope and Roman Catholic Church initiated in 1663 AD. Other faction was Malankara Orthodox Church initiated in 1665 AD.



    The naive Roman Catholics who joined the faction led by Archdeacon Marthoma 1 were told that Pope had sent a new Bishop called Mar Gregorios Abdal Jaleel to ordain Marthoma as Bishop. But Mar Abdal Jaleel though belonged to Kurdish area of Mosul had not been a Roman Catholic at all. Mar Abdal Jaleel was a Bishop of Syriac Orthodox priest of Antioch which was a "Monophysite" church ie that sect believed Jesus and God were fused into one. The Orthodox church had been named after Bishop Jacob Baradaeus (543 AD to 578 AD) who wore tattered dress stitched many times, in sharp contrast with the opulent dress of modern Orthodox priests.

    In 1665 Mar Abdal Jaleel ordained Marthoma 1 as Bishop under Syriac Orthodox Church of Anrioch. About on third of Portuguese Roman Catholics even without their knowledge were misled by their Bishop Marthoma 1 to join a completely new foreign church called Orthodox Church with headquarters at Turkey .


    The priests of Orthodox church wear a costume derived from ancient Church of Greek Byzantine empire and also their dress was influenced by the costume of Turks who occupied Byzantian empire. Thus the Mestizo community created by Portuguese intermixture with Villarvettom Tamils and Syriac Nestorian Christians had to become members of a foreign church called Orthodox-Jacobite sect in 1665 AD. Between 1665 AD to 1822 AD Pakalomattam family rule was enforced by nine Bishops with Marthoma title.

    But later Malankara Orthidox church had split into Protestant Marthoma, Roman Catholic Syro-Malankara, Orthodox and Jacobite churches. Many Nadars have joined the Syro-Malankara and Syro-Malabar churches. Marthoma church is in communion with CSI church in which most of the Nadar Christians are members.


    Syriac language was the Liturgical language during the Nestorian period until 1498 AD. The Nestorian Kurdish Bishops sent from Mosul knew only Syriac language. But a Syrian Nasrani Mappilla used a language called Karzoni or Karshoni. Karshoni language was written with Syriac Garshuni script but the language was Western Tamil ie Malayalam-Tamil. Large number of Tamils from Villarvettom kingdom who joined Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism were also forced to adopt Karshoni Malayalam as colloquial language and Syriac as their liturgical language in the Churches. As Malayalis never understood Syriac language an announcer called "Kattiyakkaran" interpreted translated Syriac to Malayalam-Tamil. Still the Syriac priests with former Nestorian background continued to use Syriac even after their conversion to Roman Catholicism. Syriac language as liturgical language helped few priestly families with Nestorian roots could control the Portuguese converted Roman Catholic population. The adoption of Syriac names with roots from Greek Byzantine kingdom further alienated Syrian Christians from their Dravidian roots. Thus Tamils who mixed with Portuguese to produce a Roman Catholic Mestizo community were forced adopt a Persian and Turkish Syriac identity. A Syriac priest with a long beard and Middle eastern costume may actually have more of Portuguese Tamil Mestizo blood than Syriac blood as only very few Syrian Nestorians actually had migrated to India.



    Syrian Christians have mysterious ancestry. The reason for this is Portuguese intermixture had destroyed the Tamil identities of Villavar and Panickars but at the same time Portuguese could not retain the loyalty of the Mestizos. Thus a confused Syrian Tamil Nestorianism Catholic community who claim descendency from Nambuthiris who had been converted by St.Thomas in 52 AD. Nambuthiris in reality never existed in 52 AD. At the same time Syrian Christians try to identify themselves as Syrians or Jews as well. In the second millennium, Syrian church of India after the fall of Bhagdad around 1000 AD, was under the control of Kurdish church of Mosul until 1599 AD. The Bishops called "Metropolitans" who were sent to India belonged to Kurdish ethnicity who ethnically were not related to Syrians or Jews at all. After the Portuguese departure the deliberate promotion of Syriac language by the formerly Nestorian priests further eroded the Tamil Villavar identity of Syrian Christians. Portuguese had printed books in western Tamil known as Lingua Malabar Tamul. The Jesuits of Kodungaloor church continued to print Tamil books from Ambazhakkadu near Angamaly until 1680 AD.

    Only about few hundred or few thousand Nestorian Syrians only came to India from Persia and settled here.The bulk of the Syrian Christians descend from the Mestizo community created by the Portuguese and Dutch. The northern Villavar and Panickars of Villarvettam kingdom and the Panickars of Kollam by intermixture with Portuguese and Dutch created a Mestizo community.


    Panickars who were martial art trainers who maintained a contingent of soldiers under the Villavar kingdoms. Panickers joined the Portuguese and thereby created a Mestizo society. Now the Panickers are leaders of various Syrian Christian Churches. Vallikada Panickers are with Syro-Malabar and Orthodox churches. Adangapurathu Panickars are with Syro-Malabar church. Kumbanadu Panickers are with Marthoma Church. Mylitta Panickers are with Syro-Malankara church. Dutch influenced Maranadu Panickers are with London Mission Church of Kollam. Some Panickars claim that they have Nambuthiri ancestry. Some claim that Tamil Panicker title was given to them by Marthanda Varma belonging to Tulu Alupa-Kolathiri dynasty. Many Christian Panickers pretend to be related to be Nairs with Tulu-Nepalese roots. None of the Christian Panickars of Kerala understand that they were Villavars who had been the martial nobility of Villavar Kingdoms.


    Mestizo society had been a predominantly Roman Catholic community.Mestizos tended to live in groups around the Dutch settlements. By virtue of their religion, Mestizos came under Dutch jurisdiction. While some Mestizos lived inside the fort and others outside the fort. At Vypeen, Mattanchery also Mestizos and Toepasses lived.In the 18th century Mestizos had converted Dutch reformed church. Dutch colonial officers and merchants mostly married Mestizo woman. All Toepasses who resided in the Cochin fort. were still adherents of Roman Catholics. Toepasses were considered indigenous and occupied a much lower status under Dutch. Dutch rule came to an end in 1795 AD. The Dutch merchants continued to remain at Cochin. Dutch merchants and their descendents though belonged to Protests reformist Church did not join Anglican or Lutheran churches instead they joined the local Roman Catholics. Mestizos who had converted to Dutch reformed Church also joined the Roman Catholic church.

    Dutch who used to live at kollam used to have local wives which lead to the creation of a "protestant" Mestizo community at Kollam. In the 1700s at Thangasala in Kollam when a Dutch captain and his women strolling on the road they were ambushed and Killed by Nairs. But Nairs never dared to attack the valiant Portuguese soldiers or Mestizos unless Nairs were accompanied by many Muslim soldiers.



    At the Dutch period around 1675 AD a Portuguese Mestizo called Emmanuel Carnerio was among the first europeans to study the heavily Nepalese and Sanskrit mixed Grantha Malayalam and promote it. Emmanuel Carnerio wrote descriptions and headings for the plant pictures in Grantha Malayalam in the Botanical treatise Hortus Malabaricus . Grantha Malayalam had been written with Tulu script (Tigalari script) which most of the Malayalis could not read in the 17th century. Only Nambuthiris and some Northern Nairs from Palakkad and Kannur could have been able to read Grantha Malayalam. In short in the seventeenth century only less than 5% of Keralas population with Tulu-Nepalese ancestry only had been able to understand the heavily Nepalese language mixed Grantha Malayalam . But the Europeans promoted Grantha Malayalam and made it official Malayalam while banning the usage of Dravidian Malayanma language.

    The Portuguese Mestizo Emmanuel Carnerio was instrumental in the eventual destruction of Dravidian Malayanma language which had been a dialect of Western Tamil.


    French occupied Mahé alias Puducherry in 1725 AD where the Mayyazhi river flowed and had ruled it until independence. French allegedly had mistresses among the local Hindu population but they did not attempt to convert them to Christianity. The French never gave the children thus born french surnames.


    In 1701 the last nominal Villarvettom king Thoma Raja passed away without any direct and indirect heirs. After that the Kochi Kingdom seized the properties of the Villarvettom family. Some of the key properties were handed over to Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Varapuzha. Dutch were weak rulers who though protected the Orthodox Bishops and Christians from Kochi kingdom but they did not protect the Villarvettom family.


    The Portuguese Roman Catholics underwent a schism of their church in 1663 AD and thereby creating Roman Catholic Syro-Malabar and Malankara Orthodox sects. Because of Portuguese efforts both sects rejected Nestorian religion and its heresy in the laterdays. A Nestorian  Bishop called Mar Gabriel arrived in Malabar in 1708 AD. Neither Malankara church nor Catholics accepted him. Finally he came to Kottayam Cheria palli under Malankara Orthodox church. He died and was buried there. His burial place was later demolished under the orders of Orhodox Bishop Marthoma in 1730 AD and those stones were used as stepping stones to the parish building . Desecration of the grave of the last Nestorian priest Mar Gabriel also marked the end of Nestorianism in India.


    French occupied Mahé alias Puducherry in 1725 AD where the Mayyazhi river flowed and had ruled it until independence. French allegedly had mistresses among the local Hindu population but they did not attempt to convert them to Christianity. The French never gave the children thus born french surnames.


    Only ancient literature describing the mission of St.Thomas was written by Jewish author Bardaishan Acts of Thomas in the second century AD.


    1. Andropolis Kherbeta, Egypt.
    2. Babylon, Iraq
    3. Maishan (Meson Mesene) Iran
    4. Sarbug Sarbak Baloochistan Iran.
    5. Warkan Baloochistan, Pakistan.
    6. Taxila Pakistan
    7. Kingdom of Misdeus ? Ghazni Afghanistan



    St. Thomas visited Andropolis (Kherbeta) in Egypt first. The merchant Abbanes accompanied him. When he visited Egypt the kings daughter was getting married. The King had announced that all his subjects were required to participate in the wedding banquet.

    St.Thomas attended the wedding but not eating. They were recling at the floor in the Arab style. Unguent was given to the guests which St.Thomas smeared to his head.


    One of the cup bearers smote him and St.Thomas cursed him that his hand will be eaten by Dogs. One jewish maid had heard this. When the Cup- Bearer went out he was killed by a Lion. A dog brought a half eaten hand to the banquet site.

    When the king heard about this he wanted the saint to bless his daughter. St. Thomas or Jesus in the form of his twin brother advised the newly married couple to abstain from consummation.

    Next day the queen was shocked to see her daughter without Veil sitting with her husband. She considered it shameless. King angered by this called searched for St.Thomas but St.Thomas had already set sail for India.


    Egypt had been ruled by a Greek kingdom from 305 BC to 30 BC. But after the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark antony, Egypt was ruled by Roman empire. But the king St.Thomas met could be an Arab Sheikh.


    St.Thomas travelled south of Babylon to Maishan, then to Sarbug in Iran, and from there to Warkan in Ballochistan to Taxila in Pakistan.


    According to Acts of Thomas St.Thomas visited next King Gondaphares (20 to 46 AD)(Gundaphorus) belonging to Indo-Parthian dynasty who ruled from Taxasila, in Pakistan.


    St.Thomas, a trained carpenter and Architect was assigned to build a palace for King Gondophorus which he started in the Macedonian month Dios (October) and promised to complete it by Xanthikos (March). But St.Thomas spent the money for te welfare of poor. After six months when the king visited the site he found no palace. When the king enquired about the palace St.Thomas said the palace has been completed but not in this world. When the king was told that St.Thomas had built the palace in Heaven he realised that he had been cheated by St.Thomas.


    St.Thomas alongwith Habban was imprisoned by King Gondaphares.


    That night the kings long ailing brother Gad after making Gondophorus the guardian of his children died. Gad was taken by the Angels to heaven where he saw a beautiful palace. When Gad tried to enter the house the Angels stopped him saying that it had been kept ready for King Gondophares. Then the Angels sent him back to earth. Gad came to life and explained his brother the happenings.


    Gondophares released the Apostle from the prison. Perhaps Abbanes was also released. Gondaphares and Gad were baptized as Christians by St.Thomas.


    St.Thomas brought to life an youngman back to life by commanding the snake which had bitten him to suck back the venom.


    St.Thomas brought back to life a woman slain by her boyfriend who was a follower of the Apostle.



    Ouazanes(Iuzanes, Juzanes, Vizan) ordered the soldiers to bring St.Thomas to the Court house.The prince was quite convinced by the preaching of St.Thomas and even wanted to find a way to free him. But the King Misdaeus came with his guards and took him under custody.


    The soldiers bound the hands of St.Thomas and brought him before Misdaeus.The king asked who he was and with what powers he was doing these things.St.Thomas answered that he was a man like him but he was doing things because of Jesus Christ.


    King Misdaeus asked the Apostle on a hot iron plate bare footed. Suddenly water sprang from Earth and covered the plates.


    King Misdaeus send the Apostle to prison again and contemplated ways to execute him St.Thomas was accompanied by Ouazanes on the right, Siphor on his left and the wife and daughter of Siphor to prison. St.Thomas then prayed, the Lords prayer. Mathew 6: 9-14

    Tertia, Mygdonia and Narcia went to the prison and bribed the Jailer with 363 staters of Silver. When they reached near St.Thomas found Ouazanes, Siphor and his wife and daughter there. All the prisoners were sitting and hearing the word. Iuazanes requested St.Thomas to visit his sick wife Mnesara who was ailing for long.

    St.Thomas asked Juzanes to go and prepare things. The prisoners had locked it but Juzanes found it open. Juzanes met his ailing wife Mnesara on the way who claimed that an invisible youth held her hand and was leading her. Then Judas, accompanied by Tertia, Mygdonia, Narcia, Siphor and his wife and daughter came to Ouazanes's house. Judas promised that Mnesara will be further guided by Jesus.


    Judas made the women undressed and wore a girdle and then anointed by Mygdonia. St.Thomas anointed Ouazanes and Baptised all of them in the name of Father, Son and the Holy Ghost. Apostle went back to the prison along with Tertia, Mygdonia and Narcia.


    The Jailers went to Misdaes and complained that after admitting the Sorcerer they were unable to keep the doors of the prison closed and they could not prevent the Queen Tertia and Prince Ouazanes visiting St.Thomas.


    King Misdaeus stripped St.Thomas and girdled him.King Misdaeus planned to execute St.Thomas but wanted to do it secretly as St.Thomas had many followers.


    Misdaeus took St.Thomas along with four soldiers and an officer outside the city. He handed over St.Thomas to them and asked them to the nearby mountain and pierce him with their spears. People accompanied them to the hill. Iuazanes persuaded the soldiers to allow him to pray.After the prayer St.Thomas asked the soldiers to proceed. Four soldiers came and pierced him with spears and he fell down and died.


    St.Thomas was buried in the Royal sepulchre where they buried all the earlier kings.


    Tertia and Mygdonia were afflicted by their husbands but they remained firm in their faith.


    Apostle St.Thomas before he went to the hill had made Siphor a Presbyter and Iuazanes as a Deacon.Many were added to their faith.


    After a long time one of the sons of Misdaes were possessed by Devil. King Misdaes by then had become a believer of St.Thomas. King Misdaes wanted to get a bone of St.Thomas to cure his son. But when he opened the Sepulchre there was no bones of St.Thomas.


    One of the brethren had secretly stolen the bones of St.Thomas and had taken them to Mesopotamia.


    King Misdaes took some dust from the grave and hung it around the neck of his son thereby curing him. King Misdaeus bowed below the hands of Siphor the Presbyter who and the Brethern prayed for the King Misdeus. Multitudes of people joined the faith.



    Alexander established a Greek colony at the foothills of Hindukush mountains which he called Alexandria of Caucasus in 329 BC in the country of Paropamisadae. Alexander the Great conquered the Ghazni province in 329 BC, and called Alexandria in Opiana.


    Indo-Greek kingdom was established by Demetrius in 185 BC.


    Early capitals

    Alexandria in the Caucasus (Bagram), and Alexandria of Opiana(Ghazni) were in Afghanistan.

    Later capitals Taxila, Chiniotis, Sagala, Pushkalavati all were at Pakistan at the Indus area and adjoining areas of Punjab.


    An Indo-Greek king called Menander( Menander I Soter) ruled over Indo-Greek kingdom between 165 BC to 155 BC with capital at Sagala (Sialkot) in Pakistan. Menander converted to Buddhism and was known by the name Milinda. Strato I son of Menander ruled between 130 BC to 110 BC. Last king of this dynasty was Strato II  Soter who ruled between 25 BC to 10 AD at Punjab. In 10 AD Indo-Greek kingdom of Strato II  Soter was supplanted by the Indo-Scythian(Saka) Northern Satraps. But another last Indo-Greek king Zoilos III Soter has ruled from Pakistan in 35 AD.


    A descendant of Zoilos III Soter(10 AD to 35 AD), might have survived at the Ghazni province of Afghanistan as King Misdeus. The kingdom of Misdaeus was

    1. Desert
    2. Mountainous
    3. Had a place called Calamina
    4. Greek kingdom
    5. Currency was Denarri and Staters of silver
    6. Close to Taxila
    7. Wild Ass habitat
    8. Months Dius and Xanthicos

    Since Mygdonia wife of Carisius tells the Apostle that their country was a desert kingdom it could not have been Indus area.The last Indo-Greeks might have ruled from arid, hill desert like Ghazni province of Afghanistan.

    Aravalli hills is a mountainous desert country but it was under Saka Satraps, the enemy territory.

    Acts says that St.Thomas was executed at Calamina, a hill. Kalaminar near Jaghatu in the Ghazni province could be the place where St.Thomas was martyred. Greeks called this country Alexandria of Opiana. Wild asses are found at north eastern India and Pakistan. Denarii and Stater were Greek currency. Months Dius and Xanthicos were Greek currency.

    In fact there are three places called Kalaminar in Afghanistan.

    1. Kala-Minar Jaghatu, Ghazni, Afghanistan

    2. Kalaminar,  Chagcaran, Ghowr, Afghanistan

    3. Koh-e-Kalaminar north east of Kabul

    Misdeus might belong to the Soter dynasty established by Menander. Misdeus could be the son of King Zoilos III who ruled from Indus.