Elders(Archdeacon) of Pakalomattom & Palamattom(പകലോമറ്റം മൂപ്പന്മാരും പാലമറ്റം മൂപ്പന്മാരും)


Niranam  chronicle  (Malayalam), MS now in 
the possession of  the  Kanianthra  family, 
Niranam-Some say diary of Mar Dionysius I.
First of all this is not an article dealing with usual Pakalomattom Archdecon stories rather  a simple effort to understand the different indigenous prelates ruled the church of st Thomas Christians of India between the period 1500-1700, their affiliation,family etc. The inspiration of this article is a curious description about the elders of St Thomas Christians (So called archdeacons) from Niranam chronicle. The Niranam Chronicle gives a curious list of Elders interestingly not just from Pakalomattom family of Kuravilangadu but also from one Palamattom family of (Kadamattom?). They are Malanaara ?[1570 -This Malanara seems to be an imaginary guy added to claim antiquity to this lineage   because there is no tradition associated with this Malanara either with Portuguese or St Thomas Christians . Also Niranam Chronicle itself sates that the Elder(Archdeacon) during the initial days of mar Abraham was Gevarughese ie Pakalomattom Gevarughese of kuravilangadu died 1585], Yohannan (died 1591),Gevarughese(Died 1604), Ittykurien(Died 1640). Another interesting  fact is that both these John (Yohannan) and George (Gevarughese) were appointed as Chaldean archdeacons under Chaldean metropolitan mar Abraham by Portuguese authorities to counter the influence of one Pakalomattom Jacob [previously a   priest of Mart Mariam Church Kuravilangadu]. It seems that it was this Jacob who succeeded Elder Gevarughese (after his death in 1585) as the Elder(Archdeacon) of Malabar church. Rather than appointed by any bishop he inherited the title Elder (Archdeacon) by his family right. This Jacob who associated himself with one Nestorian Bishop named Mar Simon. Mar Simon  was  sent to Malabar by  the Nestorian Patriarch and according to Portuguese testimonies together with Jacob resisted all Latin innovations added to the Malabar rite by Mar Abraham and Latin prelates .Again the Niranam chronicle gave the date of death of Gevarughese(elder during the Diamber Synod) at 1604 AD. But the Portuguese testimonies tells about another Elder George (died 1640&possibly the Gevarghese entombed at Kuravilangadu Mart Mariam Church) who was in continuous struggle with Francis Roz(Died 18 February I624) and his successor Stephen de Britto(1624-1641). I would suggest that this Elder Gevarghese was  the one who inherited the title from Elder Jacob of Pakalomattom. Finally Niranam chronicle gives the name of one  Thoma of Palamattom(?-?)…   At the same time Portuguese accounts tells us that there was another Elder Thoma described as nephew of Pakalomattom Gevarughese of Cross(some tradition tells us that after his time(Gevarghese) the root family of Pakalomattam became heirless. The only son shifted residence to Alappatt house).

Now possible conclusions.

Conclusion-I
1) This Palamattom Thoma May be same as the Marthoma I(first Methan of Jacobite church) and the Elder Thoma Mentioned in Portuguese records is different.
Then

2)Pakalomattom Mar Chandy may be the brother of Elder Pakalomattom Thoma (Nephew of Pakalomattom Gevarughese (of Cross)) and not Palamattom Thoma(Later Marthoma I).

Conclusion-II

1)Palamattom Thoma,Marthoma I(first Methan of Jacobite church) and the Elder Thoma Mentioned in Portuguese records is the same guy.
3)Then there is a problem in the succession of Pakalomattam elders after Gevarughese[Tradition tells us that after the time of Gevarghese (of cross) the root family of Pakalomattam became heiress. The only son shifted residence to Alappatt house].This may be the reson why the churches stood with Pakalomattam Elders accepted Thoma of Palamattom.(1640-1663)

The pakalaomattam line Later formed the hierarchy of present day Syrian-Malabar(Syro Malabar) church(Up to 1705) and the Palamattom Line Later formed the hierarchy of Syrian-Malankara(Marthoma I-IX) Chruch(Up to 1820?).    

"മശിഹക്കാലം 1545ചെന്ന കൊല്ലം 720 -ല്‍ മാര്‍ അബ്രഹാം മെത്രാന്‍  വന്നു അയാളെ പറങ്കികള്‍  സ്വാധീനത്തില്‍   ആക്കി റോമയ്ക്ക് അയച്ചു പാപ്പയുടെ പ്രമാണത്താലേ വീണ്ടും മലയാളത് വന്നു(1565 -1568) അക്കാലത്തു മലങ്കരവാഴുന്നത് ഗിവറുഗീസ് അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍ ആകുന്നു.[നിരണം ഗ്രന്ധവാരി,മലയാളത്തില്‍ ഉണ്ടായ  കാര്യങ്ങള്‍ ,പേര്‍ഷ്യന്‍ മെത്രന്മാര്‍].

ഉദയംപേരൂര്‍ സുന്നഹദോസ് -"മശിഹക്കാലം 1598 ചെന്ന  കൊല്ലം 778 ല്‍ മാര്‍ അല്ലെശു മെത്രാന്‍ വന്നു .ഈ മെത്രാന്‍ കൊച്ചി രാജാവിനെ സ്വാധീനിച്ചു മലയാളത്തില്‍ ഇരിക്കുന്ന   ഗിവറുഗീസ് അര്‍ക്കധിയോ ക്കനെയും അനുസരിപ്പിച്ചു 778 മാണ്ടു മിഥുന മാസം ഉദയംപേരൂര്‍ സുന്നഹധോസെന്നു പേരും വിളിച്ചു മലയാളത്തില്‍ ഉള്ള  പള്ളികള്‍ ഒക്കെയും ഉദയംപേരൂര്‍ കൂട്ടി സുറിയാനി മര്യാദകള്‍ ഒക്കെ നീക്കി പറങ്കി മര്യാദകള്‍ നടത്തുകയും ചെയ്തു തിരുവതാം കോടുകാരും ചാട്ടു കുളങ്ങര ക്കാരും കൂടിയില്ല  .അന്നത്തെ കൂട്ടത്തില്‍ പ്രമാണികള്‍ അല്ലെശു മെത്രാനും പുത്തിക്കാരന്‍ ഫ്രാന്‍സിസ്കോ പാതിരിയും അന്ത്രോസ്കരെന്ന  പാതിരിയും പള്ളുരുത്തി യാകോബ്പ്പാതിരിയും   ഗിവറുഗീസ് അര്‍ക്കധിയോനും ആകുന്നു ." [നിരണം ഗ്രന്ധവാരി,മലയാളത്തില്‍ ഉണ്ടായ  കാര്യങ്ങള്‍ , ഉദയംപേരൂര്‍ സുന്നഹദോസ് ]. 


"ഇങ്ങനെ ചൊല്ലുമ്പോള്‍ മശിഹക്കാലം 1604 ചെന്ന കൊല്ലം 779 ആം ആണ്ടില്‍ ഗിവറുഗീസ് അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍  കാലം ചെയ്തു." [നിരണം ഗ്രന്ധവാരി, മലയാളത്തില്‍ ഉണ്ടായ  കാര്യങ്ങള്‍ ] 

പകലോമറ്റം കുടുംബം -മാര്‍ത്തോമ ശ്ലീഹ  മലയാളത് വന്നു മാര്‍ഗം അറുവിച്ചപ്പോള്‍ പട്ടമനപറവൂര്‍ എന്ന  കോട്ടക്കല്‍ ഗ്രാമത്തില്‍ മുഖ്യപെട്ട ഇല്ലക്കാര്‍ ശങ്കര പുരി എന്നും പകലോമറ്റം എന്നും പള്ളി എന്നും കാളിയാകുംകരയെന്നും.ഇവരുനാല് തറവാട്ടുകാരും ഈ വേദം അനുസരിച്ചു .മാര്‍ത്തോമ ശ്ലീഹ ശങ്കരപുരിയിലും  പകലോമറ്റത്തും പട്ടവും കൊടുത്തു .അന്നുമുതല്‍ 293 കാലം മശിഹയുടെ കാലം 345 ല്‍ കിനായി തൊമ്മനും യൊസെഫ്  മെത്രാനും വന്നാരെയും.പകലോമറ്റത്തു തറവാട്ടില്‍ ബന്ധുത  ഉണ്ടായി അത്തറവാട്ടില്‍ നിന്നും തന്നെ ഈ  പരുഷക്ക്  കര്‍ത്തവ്യം ആയി നടത്തണം എന്നും അല്ലാഞ്ഞാല്‍ വഴക്കുണ്ടാകും എന്ന് നിശ്ചയിച്ചു യൌസെഫ്  മെത്രാന്‍ പാലമറ്റത്തു തറവാട്ടില്‍ അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍  സ്ഥാനവും കൊടുത്തു ഇപ്പരുഷക്കാരെ ഒക്കെയും വിചാരിച്ചു.ചേകോന്‍ പെരുമാള്‍ തമ്പാന്റെ കാലത്തു ഇപ്പരുഷ ഒക്കെയും കൊടുങ്ങലൂര്‍ പാര്‍ത്തു നാനൂറ്റി ചില്വാനം വര്‍ഷം കഴിഞ്ഞു കൊടുങ്ങലൂരില്‍ നിന്നും വാങ്ങി മങ്കാട്ട് സ്വരൂപത്തിന്റെ നാട്ടില്‍ പള്ളിയും കമ്പോളവും വച്ച് പാര്‍ത്തു വന്നതിനു ശേഷം..എഴുനൂറ്റി ചില്വാനം വര്‍ഷം കഴിഞ്ഞു നാലുകുടുംബവും ചേര്‍ന്ന് വടക്കുംകൂര്‍ സ്വരൂപത്തെ ചെന്ന് കണ്ടു കുറവിലങ്ങാട്‌ പള്ളിയും വച്ച് പാര്‍ത്തു വരുന്നു .  [നിരണം ഗ്രന്ധവാരി, മലയാളത്തില്‍ ഉണ്ടായ  കാര്യങ്ങള്‍,കടമറ്റത്തു  അച്ചന്മാര്‍  ] 
Reconstruction of Caste Divions among Pre-Portuguese St Thomas Christians based on Niranam chronicle and other Documents.


*Thomas of Cana-One social division among the st thomas christians  that is popularly dated from the supposed migration under the aegis of Thomas of Cana persisted into the twentieth century.About the year of arrival of Thomas  the earliest available report seems to be of Dionysio. Dionysio ( 1578) gives the arrival of Thomas of Cana after Mar Sabrisho and Mar Piruz ie, after 9th century. Gouvea ( 1604) also dates the arrival in 9th century. The Dutch writer Visscher ( 1743) also gives the date as 745 AD. Hugh gives the date as 780 AD. Assemani in 900 AD. Paolo gives the arrival as 825 AD. Some of the 16th century records doesn’t mention the dates. It is said that the new arrivals settled north of the Periyar River near Cranganore, the place where Thomas was thought to have come ashore, and obtained a land grant from the local ruler. They are known as Northists(Note that not all st thomas christians have this claim its evident from the Niranam Chronicle that the traditional origin of Palamattam family is related to Thomas of cana ie Thomas married a women from an influential family of St Thomas christians). This Northist descendants of Thomas claim that the Southists, living south of the river, were descendants of Thomas of Cana by his concubine, an outcaste washer woman, whom Thomas arranged to be married to a low-caste youth. Seven daughters, the issue of this lowly union, were married to seven sons of southern colonists, and their descendants became the Southists. So say the Northists. The Southists reverse the story, claiming higher lineage than their rivals. 

For more information read.
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Tomb of Marawan(Abo) at Thevakarala Church
കര്‍ത്താവിന്റെ കാലം 825 കൊല്ലം ഒന്നിനു മാര്‍ ചവോരും മാര്‍ അപോറോത്ത്  എന്ന് പേരുള്ള   രണ്ടു  അപോസ്കൊപ്പമാര്‍  സവരിഷു  എന്ന് പേരുള്ള ഒരു  കച്ചവടക്കാരന്റെ  കൂടെ  വന്നു...  മാറാവാന്‍ എന്നയാള്‍ തേവലക്കര പള്ളിയില്‍ അടങ്ങി.ഇദ്ധേഹത്തിന്റെ കാര്‍യ്യം  പിന്നെ പറയും -നിരണം ഗ്രന്ഥവാരി, മലയാളത്തില്‍ ഉണ്ടായ കാര്യങ്ങള്‍.

മിശിഹാക്കാലം 905 ഇല്‍ മറാവാന്‍ എന്ന ആള്‍ തേവലക്കര അടങ്ങിയിരിക്കുന്നു എന്നും അയാളുടെ കാര്‍യ്യം പിന്നെ പറയുമെന്നും മുന്‍പ് എഴുതിയിരുന്ന കാര്‍യ്യം പറയുന്നു ഇദ്ദേഹം കടമറ്റത്ത്‌ ആറ്റുപുറത്തു മാപ്പിളയുടെ വീട്ടില്‍ പാര്‍ത്തു.ഈ വീട്ടുകാരത്രേ കടമറ്റത്ത്‌ പള്ളി വയ്പ്പിച്ചത്  പിള്ള മാറാവാനില്‍ നിന്നു വേദം(?) പഠിച്ചു അത്തറവാട്ടില്‍ പട്ടക്കാരുണ്ടായി.....ഇങ്ങനെ നടന്നു വരുമ്പോള്‍ മുളന്തുരുത്തി കാലം ചെയ്ത മാറിവാനിയോസിന്റെ കാലത്തു കടമറ്റത്ത്‌ ചെന്ന് അവരുടെ ഷുദ്രങ്ങള്‍ ആയിട്ടുള്ള പൊസ്തകങ്ങളും  ഗ്രന്ഥങ്ങളും ചുടുവിച്ചു മേലാല്‍  ഈവക പ്രവര്‍ത്തികള്‍ ചെയ്യരുതെന്നും വിലക്കി -നിരണം ഗ്രന്ധവാരി ,കടമറ്റത്ത്‌ അച്ചന്മാര്‍  

Note : മാര്‍ ചവോരും മാര്‍ അപോറോത്ത് എന്നിവരുടെ കൂടെ വന്ന കച്ചവടക്കാരന്റെ പൂര്‍ണ  നാമം മാറാവാന്‍ സബരിഷു എന്നാണ് . മാറാവാന്‍ എന്ന വാക്കിന്റെ അര്‍ത്ഥം  ഒന്നെങ്കില്‍ കച്ചവടക്കാരന്‍   അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ പേര്‍ഷ്യയിലെ ഒരു സ്ഥല നാമം ആണ്.പേരുകളിലെ ഈ അസാമാന്യമായ  സാമ്യം തേവലക്കര  പള്ളിയില്‍ 905 ഇല്‍  അടങ്ങിയ  മറാവാന്‍ 825 ഇല്‍ വന്ന മറാവാന്‍ സവരിഷു  തന്നെ ആണോ എന്ന സംശയം ജനിപിക്കുന്നു.കൂടാതെ തെവക്കര പള്ളി  തന്നെ  ആണോ ചെര്‍പ്പാടുകളില്‍ പറയുന്ന തരിസാപ്പള്ളി എന്ന് പരിശോധിക്കെണ്ടിയിരിക്കുന്നു( ഈ പള്ളി  പണിയിച്ചത് ഒരു ഇഷോ ദത്തപ്പാരി(മാര്‍ സപോര്‍ ഇഷോ ?) ആണെന്നു   ചെര്‍പ്പടുകളില്‍ നിന്നും  വ്യക്തം  ആണ്).[Kollam Tharissappally constructed by Eshodathappari (ഈശോ ദത്തപ്പാരി ) . The last of the copper plate (ശാസനം) state that ‘അയ്യനാടികള്‍ തിരുവടികളെക്കൊണ്ടു മറുവാന്‍ ചപരിഷു(Same Marawan of Niranam chronicle) നേര്‍വീഴ്ത്തി its clear from the above description that the pally(Note that most of the Witness in the copperplate are non-Christians) was constructed by Eshodathappari and person who got persuaded the Kind to grant the copper plate was Marawan Chaparisha.] ഈ ചെര്‍പ്പാടുകള്‍ ഈ പള്ളിക്ക് നല്‍കാന്‍ കൊല്ലം രാജാവിനെ പ്രേരിപിച്ചത്‌ ഈ  മാറാവാന്‍ സബരിഷു ആണെന്ന് കൊല്ലം ചെര്‍പ്പാടുകള്‍ പറയുന്നു.കൂടാതെ കൊല്ലം തേവലക്കര പള്ളിയിലെ തുലശേര്രി  മണപുറത്തു തുടങ്ങിയ തറവാട്ടുകാര്‍ ഇന്നും ഈ   മാറാവാന്‍ സബരിഷുവിന്റെ പിന്‍ഗാമികള്‍ എന്ന് അവകാശപെടുന്നു .അവസാനം ആയി മലബാറിലെ സുറിയാനി ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികളില്‍ മാറാവാനെ  വിശുദ്ധന്‍ ആയി കാണുന്ന രണ്ടേ രണ്ടു പള്ളികള്‍ മാത്രം ആണ് ഉള്ളത് ഒന്ന് കടമറ്റം പള്ളിയും,രണ്ടാമതെത് കൊല്ലം തേവലക്കര പള്ളിയും ബാക്കി എല്ലാ മാര്‍ത്തോമ ക്രിസ്ത്യാനികളുടെ പള്ളികളും   അപോസ്കൊപ്പമാര്‍ ആയിരുന്ന  മാര്‍ ചവോരിനെയും  മാര്‍ അപോറോത്തിനേയും മാത്രമേ വിശുദ്ധര്‍(കന്തിശങ്ങള്‍) ആയി കണക്കാക്കിയിരുന്നുള്ളൂ.
*Abo(Marawan? Aka Mar Abo)- An obscure Persian prelate who is also supposedly the mentor of the legendary Kadamattathu Kathanar. There is a lot of confusion on whether this character is the same as the Sapor part of the duo that landed later in Kerala(Present day church historians like to claim this abo is same as Sapor).This possible Nestorian reached Kerala sometime was back in the 9th century.As per Niranam chronicle Marawan(Mar Abo) died inthe year of our lord 905 and entombed at Thevalakara church. Was he an occultist? An exorcist? An herbalist? Nestorian? Nobody knows but he is supposedy (disputed) entombed at the Thevalakara Orthodox church near Karunagapally. In Niranam Chronicle  Abo Mentioned as MARAWAN ,note that the original name of this prelate may be "Marawan" and later the Kerala church historians manipulated this name to(Mar Abo) give some "Syrianness" to this Persian Prelate..It is also interesting to note that Niranam chronicle nowhere address Marawan as a bishop or Episcopa).There is little doubt that the  the rituals practised at Kadamattam church were some kind of combination of Persian  and Indian Black magic . 
For more information read.
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"പാലമറ്റത്തു ആര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍മാരുടെയും മെത്രാന്മാരുടെയും ചരിത്രം എഴുതിയിരുന്ന കടലാസുകളും ഗ്രന്ധവരിയും നിരണത്തു പള്ളിയില്‍ വച്ച് പൂട്ടിയിരുന്ന പെട്ടകം ചിതലെടുത്തു കേടുകാര്‍യം വന്നു പോയാറെ.അതില്‍ ഒരിടത്തു കണ്ടത് കൊല്ലം 745(AD 1570) ആം ആണ്ടു മിഥുന മാസം 6  ന് മലനാര(?) അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍  കഴിഞ്ഞു ,കൊല്ലം 768(AD 1593)  ആം ആണ്ടു മീന  മാസം 30 ന്  യോഹന്നാന്‍  അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍  കഴിഞ്ഞു ,കൊല്ലം 779(AD 1604) ആം ആണ്ടു കര്‍ക്കിടക   മാസം 15 ന്   ഗിവറുഗീസ്  അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍  കഴിഞ്ഞു , കൊല്ലം 815(AD 1640)  ആം ആണ്ടു മീന  മാസം 5 ന്   ഇട്ടിക്കുരിയത്  അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍  കഴിഞ്ഞു .ഇതില്‍ വണ്ണം മശിഹക്കാലം 345 ആം ആണ്ടു അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍  സ്ഥാനം കെട്ടിയാറെ. 1653 ആം കാലം വരെയും അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്മാര്‍ മുടക്കം വരാതെ നടത്തി വന്നു".[നിരണം ഗ്രന്ധവാരി,മലയാളത്തില്‍ ഉണ്ടായ  കാര്യങ്ങള്‍ , പാലമറ്റത്തു അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്മാര്‍ ].
Note that the Niranam chronicle only gave us the year of death of the prelates we know the year of appointment of Yohannan(1591) and Gevarghese(1593) but we don't know the year appointment of Malanara(I doubt this guy is even a Christian?which we will discus in detail in another thread) and Ittykkurien.But it is interesting to note that Menezes had declared on several occasions his intention of excommunicating George(1593-1604) and replacing him by a cattanar named Thomas Kurian, a near relation of George.Thomas Kurian who had been a rival candidate for the archdeacon ship in 1 593. [21]

Pakalomattom Elders(പകലോമറ്റം മൂപ്പന്മാര്‍ ).

Elder Pakalomattom Parambil Geevarghese(of Christ)[പകലോമറ്റം  മാര്‍ ഗീവര്‍ഗിസ്   ](1552-1585)
Mar  Hormizd Cathedral church at Angamale built by Mar Abraham in the year of our
 lord 1583.Mar  abraham(1565-1597) entombed near the holy altar of this church.
One of the most famous Archdeacons (Elder) in the history of St Thomas Christians is the Elder Geevarghese of Christ (died 1585 AD). He was a Biblical expert and a master of syriac language and literature. He was considered a holy person but extremely efficient in administration. He was contemporary to Bishop Mar Abraham of Persia who lived in Angamaly(1568-1597). He is credited with the new construction of Angamaly Mart Mariam Church. The vicar general during the first part of the reign of Mar Abraham was Elder George of Christ, who was on friendly terms with the Latin missionaries and was to be appointed the successor of Mar Abraham as Metropolitan of India. Thus he should have become, according to the plans of Mar Abraham, supported by the Jesuits, the first known indigenous Syro-Chaldaean Catholic Metropolitan of the St Thomas Christians. However, the last letter of Mar Abraham, where he requests the Pope to confirm George’s ordination as Bishop of Palur and his successor, is dated January 13, 1584, while from another letter of the same Mar Abraham we learn that the consecration of George failed because of the latter’s death.[2]Geevarghese of Christ died in Angamaly. He was probably buried in the St Mary’s   church   Angamaly. 

Syriac letters by Jesuit missionaries
to Elder George(of Christ)[AD 1579]
The letter addressed to the Archdeacon, George of Christ. It treats the beating up of Pero Luis, the first Indian Jesuit in Paravur, which happened sometime around 1579.So the letter should be dated to ca. 1579. “Abraham, the adversary of the Padri” is Mar Abraham, Metropolitan of India.[33]


“To the Head of the deaconate which is <full> of sublimespiritual gifts, peace! The cause for us not coming to you is that thePrince of Cochin wrote and sent to us <about the fact that> Abraham,the adversary of the Padri sent to him and to the bishop <proposing>that this dispute (or: schism) should be solved before them. All this<happened> after <some> Christians came here and to Vawmas’aye(Bawmas’aye?) for this reason. Because of this we have written tothe Prince that he should fulfil his <probably Abraham’s> wish. And itwas because of this that we have abandoned the issue rather than<allow> that there be much pretext against the King [perhaps ofPortugal], <saying> that he does not fulfil the promises concerningthose things that earlier he had promised them. Moreover, the peopleof the locality of Parur mistreated some people from among the menbelonging to the holy Roman Church and so it was not befitting thatafter we received blows by their hands we should go to them. Soplease know all this, for there is no other explanation besides this.”[33]
Elder Pakalomattom Parambil Yacob [പകലോമറ്റം യാകോബ്] (1585-1596).
One of the most famous and also most ignored (by the church historians) Archdeacon (Elder) in the history of St Thomas Christians is the Elder Pakalomattom Yacob (died 1596 AD).

Mission of Mar Simon and Elder Yacob-Triumph and Tragedy.
Mar Abraham (Initially a Nestorian Later converted to Chaldean) was ordained Metropolitan a third time in 1565 by Pope Pius IV. The Pope wanted Mar Abraham to reign jointly with Mar Joseph [10], who in the meantime had returned to Malabar in 1564, only to be deported a second time in 1567 and die in Rome in 1569[11]. From Rome, Mar Abraham returned to Mesopotamia and reached the Malabar Coast for the second time in 1568. Although he was once again detained in Goa, in 1570 he managed to escape, and governed the Malabar Christians until his death in 1597[12].

Taking into account the fact that Mar Abraham had gone over to the Chaldeans, the Nestorian Catholicos Patriarch, Mar Eliah VIII (1576-1591), sent another bishop, Mar Simeon, to Kerala. The allegiance of this Mar Simon is disputed Many scholars states that he was sent by the Chaldean patriarch to assist Mar Abraham[15][13]. Mar Simeon probably arrived there in 1576.[9] At first he was held in greater respect than Mar Abraham, whose repeated abjurations of his creed, had shaken the confidence of his flock, who could no longer be certain how long his religious tenets would continue unchanged. Mar Simeon was patronized by a powerful Rannee of that country, called by the Portuguese Queen of Pimenta (The Queen of Pimenta (Vatakkumkur) were very powerful ", Gouvea says, " She could place in the field 30000 men, also note that the same Gouvea wrote there were 50,000 Christian soldiers in the state of cochin) [13], and was permitted to establish himself in her dominions, at Carturté (Kaduthuruthy), one of the principal towns of the Syrians[4]. He stayed in Malabar until 1584[9]. Mar Abraham thought that the Latin Church might possibly assist him, so he denounced Mar Simeon to the Portuguese, as an enemy to their creed, and an intruder into Malabar. Thus schism was soon followed by excommunications which the rival Bishops fulminated against each other, and the whole Christian community was thrown into violent commotion. The more numerous party adhered to Mar Simeon, acknowledging him for their lawful bishop [4]. In reality The Portuguese authorities had no such regard for Mar Abraham as to induce them for his own sake to take up his cause yet their own interest prompted them now to do him this service. There was much more hope of their subduing the Syrians of Malabar, while under the infirm and versatile Abraham, than if they had a prelate of Simeon’s energy and ambition. The honor of their church also pleaded in Mar Abraham's favor for he had received Papal consecration, and was appointed to his bishopric by the pope. It was, therefore, determined to give him their support, and place him in undisputed possession o his see. Hearing that the party of Mar Simeon and Elder Yacob was very numerous and that he was out of their reach at Carturté, they despaired of taking him by force; accordingly it was resolved to get him into their hands by strategy. For this purpose they employed some Franciscan friars [5]. Upon which Mar Simeon was informed by these Franciscan friars that if he wished to succeed Mar Abraham, it was necessary for him to proceed to Rome, to have his title ratified by the Pope. He accordingly placed “senior Priest” Yacob as the Vicar in charge during his absence, and went to Goa. From whence he took the ship to Portugal.[3].

In Rome, where it was discovered that he was a Nestorian and, on account of this fact, his ordination as priest and bishop was declared invalid. With this sentence upon him, he was sent by the Cardinal Severiana to Philip II., King of Spain who placed him under the care of Don Alexio de Menezes, whom he was about to send to India as Archbishop of Goa. Mar Simeon naturally expected Menezes to carry him back to India; but instead of this, he was kept in confinement at Lisbon, in a Franciscan convent where he died in 1599[14]. He is said to have written to his vicar-general, Jacob, from Lisbon by every fleet that sailed to India, and in all his letters to have styled himself Metropolitan of India, and maintained his unshaken profession of the Chaldean faith. These letters were found some time after, in 1599, by Archbishop Menezes, when he visited Malabar, and were sent by him to the chief tribunal of the general Inquisition of Portugal. lt is uncertain whether Mar Simeon was alive at the time of their arrival.[6][16] The removal of that unhappy prelate seemed to open to his rival(Mar Abraham) the prospect of a quiet possession of his bishopric but in this he was disappointed. The Senior cattanar Elder Jacob, Mar Simeon`s vicar-general, refused to acknowledge Mar Abraham, and thus kept open the schism in the Malabar Church.

Before leaving Malabar, Mar Simeon appointed one Senior  priest as his “vicar general,” Jacob by name, who, according to the Portuguese testimonies, resisted all the Latin innovations introduced under Mar Abraham and was finally excommunicated by Archbishop Menezes of Goa before he died in 1596. However, as this priest is also called Archdeacon, I would suggest that his As Archdeacon Jacob appears on the scene as a leader of the Church of Malabar in 1584, I would suggest that he was the one who inherited the office of the Archdeacon from George (of Christ). Rather than being appointed by Mar Simeon, the Nestorian Metropolitan, he inherited the office by family right and sided with Mar Simeon against Mar Abraham, which resulted in a very tense situation. The Roman side seems to have tried to solve this problem by appointing a rival Archdeacon, the first one in 1591 and the second, George in 1593. [18]  

Archbishop Menezes after his arrival determined on bringing the Malabar Church, under his control. A letter was then dispatched to the Vicar general Elder Yacob, whom Mar Simeon had left in charge[7], inviting him to join the Roman Catholic faith, and holding out inducements of rich rewards and high honors, in case of his acceptance.  He also requested Elder Yacob  to throw away the commission he had received from Mar Simeon, seeing that he had been  convicted at Rome of not being in orders, and to submit himself to the papal authority at the same time he made him large promises of favour if he would comply with his injunctions. To all this Jacob turned a deaf ear, and took occasion from the attempt to seduce him from his fidelity, again to caution his people against Portuguese[17]. The energy of Jacob’s character, and his reputation for sanctity and devotion, threatened to render him a formidable adversary to the Archbishop, had he not been soon removed by death. 

Mart Mariam Church of Corolongate- The great church
of st thomas christians  in  the south and the home
church of Pakalomattom Elders. 
The Portuguese have not failed to endeavor to turn this sudden interposition of Divine Providence to their own advantage. As usual, they have laboured to defame the character of a man whose integrity they could not overcome. Gouvea has invented, or repeated, a stony concerning him, resembling the account that Evagrius has given of the malady with which Nestorius was suddenly seized, which is said so to have affected his tongue, that he could not speak to be heard, and that this was soon. followed by his miserable end. Evagrius was a very credulous author of the sixth century, who wrote some time after the death of Nestorius. Upon such testimony do the Portughese give credit to this tale  and they have taken it as their model for a similar invention, to account for the sudden death of the Elder Jacob. " He boasted," says Gouvea, " that he had received revelations, in which he had been commanded to persevere in his resistance. So great were his impudence and folly, that he dared to preach in the church of Corolongate (Kuravilangadu Mart Mariam Church) that the holy virgin brought forth with pain, and that she ceased to be a virgin after the birth of her Son blasphemy that could not go unpunished: for hardly had he pronounced the words before he was smitten with the pains of Nestorius:" that is, in the tongue, which, it is said, instantly deprived Jacob also of the power of speech, and speedily occasioned his decease.[8]


Open Air Rock Cross in front of  Holy Ghost Church 
Muttuchira errected by Elder Mar Yacob and blessed
by Mar Simon in year of our lord 1581 (meenam 29) 
From an Inscription stone (in Vattezhuthu-Ancient Script),dated 1581, from the Holy ghost church Muttuchira we learn, among others, that in the 16th century instead of the earlier wooden crosses the Christian communities started to erect granite crosses.“This record begins with the date A.D. 1528 in which across (śliva mentioned as tilivā) of wood appears to have been erected under the orders of the Patriarch (tamburān)and then it enumerates a few bishops who had been in charge of the Syrian church of Malabar in the beginning ofthe sixteenth century A.D., such as Mar Denha and Mar Givargis (George). After them is mentioned Mattāyi-pādiri who went to Portugal and who is represented as the marumagan of one of the bishops. […] The bishop Mār Simeon, together with his vicar   Yacob is said to have taken out this wooden cross (mara-tiliv ā) on the 13th Kanni of the year A.D. 1580, which was the anniversary day (tilivā perunāl) of the Invention of the Cross , and to have consecrated a stone cross (karuŋal-tiliva) instead, on Good Friday, the 29thday of Mīnam in A.D. 1581-[Description of the Muttuchira Vattezhuttuinscription by A. S. Ramanatha Ayyar][19]



Elder Pakalomattom Parambil Geevarghese(of cross) [പകലോമറ്റം  പറമ്പില്‍   ഗീവര്‍ഗിസ്  ].(1596-1640).

Elder Pakalomattom Geevarghese of the cross
Entombed at Kuravilangadu  chruch.
It’s Clear from the Niranam Chronicles that the Elder Palamattam Gevarughese(1593-1604) died in the year 1604 AD."ഇങ്ങനെ ചൊല്ലുമ്പോള്‍ മശിഹക്കാലം 1604 ചെന്ന കൊല്ലം 779 ആം ആണ്ടില്‍ ഗിവറുഗീസ് അര്‍ക്കധിയോന്‍  കാലം ചെയ്തു." [നിരണം ഗ്രന്ധവാരി, മലയാളത്തില്‍ ഉണ്ടായ  കാര്യങ്ങള്‍ ] . This Palamattom Elder was the one who lead the church during Diamber synod also he was the rector of Jesuit Syrian seminary at Vypinkotta. After his period according to Niranam chronicles next Palamattom Elder was one Ittykurien [1604-1640 (Itty=Issac & Kurien=Cyriac)].But around the year 1610 another Elder George (died 1640&possibly the Gevarghese entombed at Kuravilangadu Mart Mariam Church) began to appear in Portuguese records, who was in continuous struggle with Francis Roz(Died 18 February I624) and his successor Stephen de Britto(1624-1641). I would suggest that this Elder Pakalomattom Gevarghese   inherited the Elder title from Jacob of Pakalomattom.

Francis Roz was not  successful in handling of the affairs of the Archdeacon George (Pakalomattom) and the church in Sera. George had succeeded in getting a measure of support from the Bishop of Cochin. But Roz, who had come to believe that George was not merely opposed to him personally but was planning a revolt in the church and a return to the allegiance of the patriarch of Babylon, in 1610 he decided to excommunicate him. Secure in the protection afforded by his friends and relations George took no notice of the Roz’s excommunication. Then, in a sudden volte face in 1615 he decided to make his submission, and was relieved of the sentence of excommunication. ln the same year he wrote to Fr Vitteleschi, the Jesuit general, a letter of enthusiastic commendation of the work of the Jesuits, and of gratitude for all that they had achieved.

lt seemed that peace had at last been secured. But this was too good to last. The next collision was caused by grossly provocative action on the part of Roz. ln 1618 he had occasion to go to Goa in company with Robert Nobili. He decided to appoint as vicar general, to take charge of the diocese in his absence, the rector of the Jesuit College at Vaippikotta. This was an open and unmistakable insult to the archdeacon, whose claims were thus set on one side; the insult was never forgiven. George withdrew all pretence of obedience to the archbishop and was followed by a considerable section of the church. Jesuits, especially Fr Campari and Fr Fenicio, and even Stephen de Britto, who in 1620 had been appointed coadjutor and successor to Roz, pleaded with him to adopt a milder tone in his dealings with the archdeacon, but without success. ln a letter of I622 Roz writes that he has known the archdeacon  since his first arrival in India, and that through all these years he has remained unaltered; kindness has had no effect on him, he is incorrigible. At the very last moment Roz relented. The bulls which would have made possible the succession of Stephen de Britto to the see having been lost by shipwreck, it was essential to appoint a diocesan administrator, to make sure that, in the event of the death of Roz, a pretender from the church of Babylon did not insinuate himself into the diocese and win away the Thomas Christians from their allegiance to Rome. With the death of Roz on 18 February I624, the archdeacon found himself for the first time in independent control of the church of the Serra. He at once set himself with commendable Zeal to bring to an end the schism which he himself had brought into being, and to remove causes of disunion and dispute. So, when Britto was able at last to take possession of his see, the archdeacon was in a position to present to him a church free from all dissension and schism, and to offer to him an enthusiastic welcome.

At first all seemed to go well. The Jesuit Annual Letter for 1626 reports that ‘the most reverend archbishop of Craganoore, who is staying with us. Gives numerous proofs of humility and of all virtues. He lives in peace and harmony with the Archdeacon. Some judged this friendship of the archbishop with the archdeacon to be of excellent augury; others felt that it could not but lead to disaster. The new policy was that of clemency and kindness by which Britto believed that he could gain far more than by severity; others thought that clemency would merely encourage the archdeacon in his perversity. What was not realized at this time was that, under all his kindness, Britto was still maintaining all the claims that Roz had made for the episcopate. The outward show of friendship did not last very long. ln 1630 Britto writes to the archbishop of Goa: Now during the six years that I have governed this church, in spite of the fact that  have always done all in my power to conciliate him in everything: that was not against my conscience, l End him as rebellious and as little submissive as he has ever been in the past. Several times already I have been on the point of breaking with him, unable to suffer any longer his innumerable lies, and the wickedness with which he pursues me without rime or reason."

Tomb of Pakalomattam Elders at Mart Mariyam Church Kuravilangadu
In 1628, without the knowledge of the archbishop, the archdeacon had written a strong letter to the papal legate in Lisbon, the collector apostoricus, strongly Criticizing the Jesuits for their high-handed actions in the Serra(Mountains of Malabar), and urging that the next archbishop should not be a Jesuit. He put forward the name of Fr Francis Donatti, a Dominican, for appointment as coadjutor to the archbishop. The collector forwarded the letter to the Propaganda in Rome, and there was a good deal of feeling in favor of the appointment of Donatti. But it was recognized that the padroado would stand in the way; as Donati was not a Portuguese, there was no likelihood that the king of Portugal would approve the nomination.‘“In 1634 Donati was on his way back to Rome, when he was captured by pirates and put to death. This was a grave loss to the church. Paulinus expresses the opinion that, if he had been appointed as coadjutor to Britto, schism in the church might never have taken place. Undeterred by his failure in 1628, in I632 the archdeacon wrote a long letter to the king of Spain and Portugal, in which among other things he accused the Jesuits of withholding the amounts due to the cathanars from the resources of the Portuguese crown.

One great success the archdeacon had scored in the later years of Britto as archbishop. Is that at some point of time, and in some manner (when and how is not clear), he had persuaded the archbishop to sign a document, in which he gave back to the archdeacon practically all the powers which he had claimed, and which made him virtually ruler of the church of the Serra. For the future the archbishop was not to confer holy orders, appoint priests to parishes excommunicate or suspend delinquent priests or Iaymen, in fact not to do anything of importance, without the consent of the archdeacon. Britto soon realized that he had made a grave mistake. ln 1636 an attempt was made to recover the compromising documents from the archdeacon. But, though George surrendered copies, he was careful to keep the originals in his own hands."

Both the protagonists were now old and tired, the archdeacon eighty or more, Britto over seventy. There seems to have been an unspoken agreement between there that they would not quarrel any more. The last few years of their respective lives were passed in peace. When George died on 25 July 1640. Britto appointed as his successor one Tumi, known to the Portuguese as Thomas de Campo. On 3 December 1641 Britto followed the old archdeacon to the grave.He led the church in a period of severe stress and held it together. After his time some say the root family of Pakalomattam became heirless. The only son shifted residence to Alappatt house. He was probably buried in forefront of Pakalomattam Thravadu (Kuravilangadu Mart Mariyam Church).



Elder Pakalomattom Parambil Thoma(പകലോമറ്റം പറമ്പില് തോമ)(1640-)
Elder Kunju Mathayi(or Kunnel Mathayi?)(1656-?)
                          
Pakalomattom Parambil Mar Chandy (പകലോമറ്റം പറമ്പില് ചാണ്ടി )  (1663-1687).

Parambil Mar Chandy(1663-1687)
Parambil Mar Chandy Methran  is the first known person to be appointed in India as a bishop from among the native Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala. Until his time Indians held the office of deacon, archdeacon etc. (There was a plan to appoint George of Christ, Elder of Mar Abraham (1568–1597) as Metropolitan of India. Thus he should have become, according to the plans of Mar Abraham, supported by the Jesuits, the first indigenous Chaldaean Metropolitan of the St Thomas Christians. However, from the last letter of Mar Abraham, where he requests the Pope to confirm George’s ordination as Bishop of Palur and his successor, is dated January 13, 1584, while from another letter of the same Mar Abraham we learn that the consecration of George failed because of the latter’s death.[23]). He had an instrumental role in reclaiming eighty-four churches in Catholic side after the Coonan Cross Oath.[24] After his death from 1687 till 1896 there were no native Bishops in Syro Malabar Church.His contemporary Archdeacon Thomas was consecrated as a bishop by 12 priests in 1653.By 1665 Mar Gregorios Abdul Jaleel, said to be a delegate of the Patriarch of Antioch was able to come to Malabar and validate the consecration of Palamattom Thoma.[24][25] At least from 7-8th century  Saint Thomas Christians were part of East Syrian Church. They came into direct communion with the Church of Rome through the Chaldean Patriarchate with the arrival of Mar Joseph Sulaqa and Mar Elias in AD 1554.[26] Historically, the title of the head of the Church of Saint Thomas was the 'Metropolitan and the Gate of India'. Ancient documents vouches this.[27]

Ancient Church @ Diamber(Udayamperur)
now under Syro-Malabar Church.
After the infamous Synod of Diamper in 1599, the Church of Saint Thomas Christians became subjected to Latin rite Bishops. The Latin Missionaries broke the historic connection of Thomas Christians with the Patriarchate of Chaldeans and downgraded the ancient Church of Christians of Saint Thomas into a mere suffragan of the Arch diocese of Goa of Latin rite. Later, the Metropolitanate was reinstated and Arch Diocese of Kodungalloor was created with Western Prelates.[28] Even though the Thomas Christians were subjected to Latin rite prelates in Latin Rite hierarchy, the community consolidated under the leadership of the Arch Deacons as a separate rite with its own liturgy and traditions. The Missionaries began to impose Latinisations in their rite of worship and tried to eliminate the authority and status of the Arch Deaconate and thereby dishonour the status of their ancient Church of Malabar. The community secretly tried to get Prelates from the Patriarchate of Chaldeans and other Eastern Churches. The missionaries used their political power to prevent Thomas Christians from contacting with any Oriental Churches and they even arrested and deported Mar Ahatalla, a Bishop of Syriac Rite arrived in Mailappore.[28] Thomas Christians rose up and revolted against the Portuguese in AD 1653 and consecrated the Arch Deacon Palliveettil Thomas as the Bishop of Thomas Christians. This revolt was nearly complete and that changed the politics.
A protest took place in 1653 with the Coonan Cross Oath. Under the leadership of Archdeacon Thomas, the Thomas Christians publicly took an oath that they would not obey the Jesuit bishops.[24][29][30]The situation is best explained by the Stephen Neill(an Anglican missionary,from Scotland) in his book "A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707".


"On january 1653 priests and people assembled in the church of Our Lady at Mattanceri, and standing in front of a cross and lighted candles swore upon the holy Gospel that they would no longer obey Garcia, and that they would have nothing further to do with the jesuits they would recognise the archdeacon as the governor of their church. This is the famous oath ofthe ‘ Koonen Cross ` (the open-air Cross which stands outside the church at Mattnchery.
The Thomas Christians did not at any point suggest that they wished to separate themselves from the pope. They could no longer tolerate the arrogance of Garcia. And their detestation of the jesuits, to whose overbearing attitude and lack of sympathy they attributed all their troubles,breathes through all the documents ofthe time. But let the pope send them a true bishop not a jesuit, and they will be pleased to receive and obey him."
A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707 By Stephen Neill page 326-327















(1)Church of Our Lady in Mattancherry(Latin) Coonan cross oath took place in front of this church(2) After the coonan cross oath a meeting took place at Idapally Mar Gevarughese church(Now under Syro Malabar church) decided to elevated Palamattam Thoma  a bishop by placing the letter of controversial Ahathula on his head(3)Palamattam Thoma was Conserted as a bishop at Alengadu Mart Mariyam Church( Now under Syro Malabar church)(4)Pakalomattam Parambil chandy was consecrated a bishop at Kaduthuruthy( Now under Syro Malabar church ) ( 31 January 1663  )
Rome intervened and Carmelite Missionaries were sent to win the Thomas Christians back. Carmelites could convince the majority that the local church needs Bishops and the consecration of the Arch Deacon Thomas was invalid as the consecration was conducted not by any Bishops, but by twelve priests only. Many leaders of the community rejoined the missionaries and later, due to political reasons, Portuguese Missionaries had to leave the country and they consecrated Parambil Chandy Cathanaar as the Bishop for the Catholic Thomas Christians in 1663. Thus, the majority of Thomas Christians consolidated under the native Bishop Palliveettil Chandy, keeping their Syro Chaldean rite of worship.Parambil Mar Chandy applied the historic title 'The Metropolitan and the Gate of all India'. This title denotes a Quasi Patriarchal status with all India jurisdiction.[28][31]

Note that it is not unreasonable to assume that at least from 850AD(possible year of arrival of thoma of knan+Marawan ) there existed a separate archdeconate in the Palamattam(?) lineage  in the same way the  Native Marthoma Christians were ruled by Pakalomattam Elders.it seems that the Persian prelates ruled both these groups together. 

Church Built by Parambil Mar Chandy at Kuravilangadu 
He belonged to the Parambil branch of Pakalomattam at Muttuchira. The parambil building of Parambrem Kara existed there till two centuries back. Parambil Kuriakose married into Kudukkasserry and the son born to the couple later became the Bishop. His mother’s house belonged to Palliveedu. Hence he was called by this family name also. De Campo is the Latin translation of Parambil the Malayalam family name. He was Vicar of Kuravilangad Parish and later had Kuravilangad as his head quarter.
He was a native of Muttuchira parish , in the present central Kerala. As a priest his original name was Father Parambil Chandy. He was consecrated Titular Bishop of Megara in Achala and Vicar Apostolic and Administrator of the Archbishopric of Cranganore on 31 January 1663, at Kaduthuruthy. He celebrated his first ponthifical mass at muttuchira church.[32] His appointment followed representations for the appointment of native Indians as bishops following the split in the church on account of the Coonan Cross Oath.

In 1674, Mar Parambil Chandy requested Rome to elect a coadjutor and proposed his nephew, Mathew for the position. Carmelites arrived in India in 1676, with special Dutch passports (as Dutch wont allow any other European to work in their areas) and they were asked by Rome to elect an Indian. They elected Raphael Figueredo in 1677, who was not a Syrian Catholic but born as an Indian in the sense that he was a half caste Portuguese. This election shook the confidence Syrian Catholics had in Carmelites and quarrels started to arise. Mar Parampil Chandy died in 1687 and was buried at Kuravilangad.

Elder Pakalomattom Parambil Mathew(പകലോമറ്റം പറമ്പില് മത്തായി)(1678-1705) 





 Palamattom(  പാലമറ്റം മൂപ്പന്മാര്‍) )).)




NOTES:


[1]
[2] Language of religion, language of the people: medieval Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Ernst Bremer, Susanne Röhl Page 401
[3] The land of the Permauls, or, Cochin, its past and its present- By Francis Day Page 223
[4] The history of Christianity in India: from the commencement of the Christian era, Volume 1 by James Hough page 283
[5] ibid 286.
[6]Ibid Page 287,288
[7] The land of the Permauls, or, Cochin, its past and its present By Francis Day Page 224
[8] The history of Christianity in India: from the commencement of the Christian era, Volume 1 by James Hough page 294,295,296.
[9] Language of religion, language of the people: medieval Judaism, Christianity, and Islam by Ernst Bremer, Susanne Röhl page 400
[10] Catholicos Abdisho IV Maron(1555–1570), the successor of Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa(Alias Mar John Sulaqa murdered in 1555), sent the brother of John, Mar Joseph, to Malabar as a Chaldean bishop; although consecrated in 1555 or 1556, Mar Joseph could not reach India before the end of 1556, nor Malabar before 1558, when the Portuguese were finally alerted by the presence of Mar Abraham and allowed Mar Joseph, accompanied by another Chaldaean bishop, Mar Eliah, to – very briefly – occupy his see
[11] Encyclopaedia of sects & religious doctrines, Volume 4 By Charles George Herbermann page 1180,1181
[12]ibid.
[13] Journal of Indian history , Volumes 26-27- University of Allahabad. Department of Modern Indian History, University of Kerala. Dept. of History, University of Kerala Page 305
[14] Language of religion, language of the people: medieval Judaism, Christianity, and Islam by Ernst Bremer, Susanne Röhl page 401
[15] The History of the Church of Malabar, from the time of its being first discover'd by the Portuguezes in the year 1501. … Together with the synod of Diamper, celebrated in … 1599, done out of Portugueze into English. With some remarks upon the faith and doctrines of the Christians of St. Thomas in the Indies,’By   Michael Geddes Top of Form
Bottom of Form
  London, 1694. Page 38
[16]ibid  page 39,40
[17] The History of the Church of Malabar, from the time of its being first discover'd by the Portuguezes in the year 1501. … Together with the synod of Diamper, celebrated in … 1599 By   Michael Geddes Page 42
[18] anguage of religion, language of the people: medieval Judaism, Christianity, and Islam By Ernst Bremer, Susanne Röhl Page 402
[19]Travancore Archeological Series VII/I, Trivandrum 1930,p. 76
[20]The Christian journal, and literary register, Volume 2.
[22]A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to Ad 1707 By Stephen Neil- Page 210.
[23]Ernst Bremer, Susanne Röhl[Language of religion, language of the people: medieval Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Page 405
[24]A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707 By Stephen Neill page 326,327
[25]The Orthodox Church of India: history and faith, Volume 1,page60.
[26]Dr.Placid Podipara, (1938) “The Syrian Church of Malabar”
[27]Placid Podipara, The Hierarchy of Syro Malabar Church, Ch IV in Collected works of Rev Dr Placid Podipara, vol I San Jose Publications, Mannanam, pp 666-667.
[28]Joseph Thekkedathu, History of Christianity in India, Vol II p75
[29]Eugene Cardinal Tisserant, “ Eastern Christianity in India”

[30]Malabar manual, Volume 1 By William Logan page 206
[31]Rev Dr Placid Podipara, The Hierarchy of Syro Malabar Church, in Collected works of Rev Dr Placid Podipara CMI, Vol I p 719
[32]J. P. M. van der Ploeg,The Christians of St. Thomas in South India and their Syriac manuscripts page 30.
[33]History of Kerala Christianity on the Basis of NewlyFound Documents: Methodological Challenges and Possible Answers(Talk at the IIS Centre for Contemporary Studies, on 24July 2008),letter translated by István Perczel.



7 comments:

  1. The observation that the "Pakalomattom Mar Chandy may be the Brother of Elder Pakalomattom Thoma and not Palamattom Thoma" is not correct, because a person who was there at the scenario, and also is a player of the events of that time Mar Joseph of St Mary Sebastiani says that Pakalomattam Chandy is the cousin of the Intruder (Archdeacon Thomas/Mar Thoma I) . From the book "The First Expedition to the East Indies" written by Mar Joseph of St Mary Sebastiani. May be Pakalomattom is pronounced as Palamattom in later records such as the Niranam Chronicles, which was written only after AD 1745.

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  6. Yes that seems to make sense. Also Arkadyokkon is mentioned as Arkadyon in many places. That seems to be a short form in writing. Pakalomattom =Palamattom & Arkkadyokkon=Arkadyon.
    Palliveettil Chandy,that's the commonly known name of Alexander de campo. Marthoma is called Parambil Thoma.

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